The patent's assignee is
News editors obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "Fluids used in the drilling, completion, production, and remediation of subterranean oil and gas wells are known. It will be appreciated that within the context herein, the term 'fluid' also encompasses 'drilling fluids', 'completion fluids', 'workover fluids', 'servicing fluids', 'production fluids', and 'remediation fluids'.
"Drilling fluids are typically classified according to their base fluid. In water-based fluids, solid particles are suspended in a continuous phase consisting of water or brine. Oil can be emulsified in the water which is the continuous phase. 'Water-based fluid' is used herein to include fluids having an aqueous continuous phase where the aqueous continuous phase can be all water or brine, an oil-in-water emulsion, or an oil-in-brine emulsion. Brine-based fluids, of course are water-based fluids, in which the aqueous component is brine.
"Oil-based fluids are the opposite or inverse of water-based fluids. 'Oil-based fluid' is used herein to include fluids having a non-aqueous continuous phase where the non-aqueous continuous phase is all oil, a non-aqueous fluid, a water-in-oil emulsion, a water-in-non-aqueous emulsion, a brine-in-oil emulsion, or a brine-in-non-aqueous emulsion. In oil-based fluids, solid particles are suspended in a continuous phase consisting of oil or another non-aqueous fluid. Water or brine can be emulsified in the oil; therefore, the oil is the continuous phase. In oil-based fluids, the oil may consist of any oil or water-immiscible fluid that may include, but is not limited to, diesel, mineral oil, esters, refinery cuts and blends, or alpha-olefins. Oil-based fluid as defined herein may also include synthetic-based fluids or muds (SBMs), which are synthetically produced rather than refined from naturally-occurring materials. Synthetic-based fluids often include, but are not necessarily limited to, olefin oligomers of ethylene, esters made from vegetable fatty acids and alcohols, ethers and polyethers made from alcohols and polyalcohols, paraffinic, or aromatic, hydrocarbons alkyl benzenes, terpenes and other natural products and mixtures of these types.
"For some applications, in particular for the use of some wellbore imaging tools, it is important to reduce the electrical resistivity (which is equivalent to increase the electrical conductivity) of the oil-based fluid in a controllable manner. It would be desirable if fluid compositions and methods could be devised to controllably modify or tune the electrical conductivity, dielectric strength, and/or the thermal conductivity of the oil-based or non-aqueous liquid-based drilling, completion, production, and remediation fluids and thereby allow for better utilization of resistivity logging tools.
"There are a variety of functions and characteristics that are expected of completion fluids. The completion fluid may be placed in a well to facilitate final operations prior to initiation of production. Completion fluids are typically brines, such as chlorides, bromides, formates, but may be any non-damaging fluid having proper density and flow characteristics. Suitable salts for forming the brines include, but are not necessarily limited to, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, zinc chloride, potassium chloride, potassium bromide, sodium bromide, calcium bromide, zinc bromide, sodium formate, potassium formate, ammonium formate, cesium formate, and mixtures thereof.
"Chemical compatibility of the completion fluid with the reservoir formation and fluids is key. Chemical additives, such as polymers and surfactants are known in the art for being introduced to the brines used in well servicing fluids for various reasons that include, but are not limited to, increasing viscosity, and increasing the density of the brine. Water-thickening polymers serve to increase the viscosity of the brines and thus retard the migration of the brines into the formation and lift drilled solids from the wellbore. A regular drilling fluid is usually not compatible for completion operations because of its solid content, pH, and ionic composition.
"Completion fluids also help place certain completion-related equipment, such as gravel packs, without damaging the producing subterranean formation zones. Conventional drilling fluids are rarely suitable for completion operations due to their solids content, pH, and ionic composition. The completion fluid should be chemically compatible with the subterranean reservoir formation and its fluids. Controllably modifying at least one property, such as but not limited to electrical conductivity, dielectric strength, and/or thermal conductivity of completion fluids may allow the use of resistivity logging tools for facilitating final operations.
"Servicing fluids, such as remediation fluids, workover fluids, and the like, have several functions and characteristics necessary for repairing a damaged well. Such fluids may be used for breaking emulsions already formed and for removing formation damage that may have occurred during the drilling, completion and/or production operations. The terms 'remedial operations' and 'remediate' are defined herein to include a lowering of the viscosity of gel damage and/or the partial or complete removal of damage of any type from a subterranean formation. Similarly, the term 'remediation fluid' is defined herein to include any fluid that may be useful in remedial operations.
"A stimulation fluid may be a treatment fluid prepared to stimulate, restore, or enhance the productivity of a well, such as fracturing fluids and/or matrix stimulation fluids in one non-limiting example.
"Before performing remedial operations, the production of the well must be stopped, as well as the pressure of the reservoir contained. To do this, any tubing-casing packers may be unseated, and then servicing fluids are run down the tubing-casing annulus and up the tubing string. These servicing fluids aid in balancing the pressure of the reservoir and prevent the influx of any reservoir fluids. The tubing may be removed from the well once the well pressure is under control. Tools typically used for remedial operations include wireline tools, packers, perforating guns, flow-rate sensors, electric logging sondes, etc.
"Despite the ability to measure deeper into the formation, the resolution of these tools is still strongly affected by the properties of the fluid within which the imaging tool is used. In order to meet the challenges encountered in the imaging of drilled formations, advanced electrical imaging tools have been developed that operate within a fluid having modified electrical conductivity and modified dielectric constant to obtain a signal at a desired frequency. Different tools require different fluid properties for maximizing the performance of the tools. For instance, tools that operate at low-frequencies (e.g. 10 kHz or lower) require fluids having a low-resistivity; whereas, tools that operate at high-frequency (e.g. 100 kHz or higher) require fluids having a high resistivity and a high dielectric constant.
"It would be desirable if the fluid compositions and methods for using such fluids could be controllably tuned or tailored to improve the electrical conductivity, dielectric strength, thermal conductivity, and combinations thereof to enhance the performance of resistivity logging tools in one non-limiting example."
As a supplement to the background information on this patent application, VerticalNews correspondents also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent application: "There is provided, in one form, a method for controllably tuning at least one property of a base fluid, such as but not limited to electrical conductivity, dielectric strength, thermal conductivity, and combinations thereof. Modified nanoparticles may be added to the base fluid. The modified nanoparticles may be or include, but are not limited to, modified graphene nanoparticles, modified graphene platelets, modified electrically-conductive nanotubes, modified electrically-conductive nanorods, nanospheres, single-walled nanotubes, double walled nanotubes, multiwalled nanotubes, nano-onions, fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and combinations thereof. The modified nanoparticles may be modified by a method, such as but not limited to chemical modification, covalent modification, functionalization, ionic associations and combinations thereof. The base fluid may be or include, but is not limited to a non-aqueous base fluid, an aqueous base fluid, and combinations thereof.
"There is further provided in another non-limiting embodiment where a tuned fluid may be circulated in a subterranean reservoir wellbore, and the fluid may improve performance of a downhole tool as compared to an otherwise identical fluid absent the modified nanoparticles. The tuned fluid may have or include a base fluid and an effective amount of modified nanoparticles to improve at least one property of the fluid. The modified nanoparticles may be or include modified graphene nanoparticles, modified graphene platelets, modified electrically-conductive nanotubes, modified electrically-conductive nanorods, nanospheres, single-walled nanotubes, double walled nanotubes, multiwalled nanotubes, nano-onions, fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and combinations thereof. The modified nanoparticles may be modified by a method, such as chemical modification, covalent modification, functionalization, ionic associations, and combinations thereof. The base fluid may include a non-aqueous based fluid, an aqueous based fluid, and combinations thereof.
"In another form, there is provided a fluid composition that may include a base fluid and modified nanoparticles. The base fluid may be or include, but is not limited to a non-aqueous base fluid, an aqueous base fluid, and combinations thereof. The modified nanoparticles may be or include, but are not limited to, modified graphene nanoparticles, modified nanotubes, modified graphene platelets, single-walled carbon nanotubes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, double-walled carbon nanotubes, nano-onions, fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and combinations thereof. The modified nanoparticles may be modified by a method, such as but not limited to chemical modification, covalent modification, functionalization, ionic associations, and combinations thereof. The fluid composition may have a resistivity ranging from about 0.02 ohm-m to about 1,000,000 ohm-m, a thermal conductivity ranging from about 0.1 W/m-K to about 1.2 W/m-K, a dielectric strength ranging from about 6 MV/m to about 100 MV/m, and combinations thereof.
"The modified nanoparticles appear to alter the electrical properties of the base fluid for better use of electrical logging while drilling and wireline tools.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
"FIG. 1 is a graph illustrating two reactions where each reaction causes a weight loss of the graphitic nanoparticles as measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); and
"FIG. 2 is a graph illustrating the average thermal conductivity of graphitic nanoparticles having increased amounts of oxidant."
For additional information on this patent application, see: Christian, Chad F.;
Keywords for this news article include: Anions, Chlorides, Fullerenes, Nanoparticle, Nanotechnology, Carbon Nanotubes, Hydrochloric Acid, Emerging Technologies,
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