Income taxes are accounted for under the provisions of ASC Topic 740, "Income Taxes" ("ASC Topic 740") using the asset and liability method whereby deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. Deferred tax assets must be reduced by a valuation allowance, if based on the weight of available evidence it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the recorded deferred tax assets will not be realized in future periods. This methodology is subjective and requires significant estimates and judgments in the determination of the recoverability of deferred tax assets and in the calculation of certain tax liabilities. At
July 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, a valuation allowance has been recorded against the deferred tax asset in the U.S. and certain of its foreign subsidiaries since management believes that after considering all the available objective evidence, both positive and negative, historical and prospective, with greater weight given to historical evidence, it is more likely than not that these assets will not be realized. In each reporting period, we evaluate the adequacy of our valuation allowance on our deferred tax assets. In the future, if the Company is able to demonstrate a consistent trend of pre-tax income, then at that time management may reduce its valuation allowance, accordingly. The Company's federal, state and foreign net operating loss carryforwards at July 31, 2013totaled approximately $2.0 billion, $451.9 millionand $60.1 million, respectively. A 5% reduction in the Company's current valuation allowance on these federal and state net operating loss carryforwards would result in an income tax benefit of approximately $38.2 million. In addition, the calculation of the Company's tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations in several tax jurisdictions. The Company is periodically reviewed by domestic and foreign tax authorities regarding the amount of taxes due. These reviews include questions regarding the timing and amount of deductions and the allocation of income among various tax jurisdictions. In evaluating the exposure associated with various filing positions, we record estimated reserves for exposures. Based on our evaluation of current tax positions, the Company believes it has appropriately accrued $1.0 millionfor exposures as of July 31, 2013.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
July 2013, the FASB issued ASU 2013-11, "Presentation of an Unrecognized Tax Benefit When a Net Operating Loss Carryforward, a Similar Tax Loss, or a Tax Credit Carryforward Exists." This update amends ASC 740, "Income Taxes," to require that in certain cases, an unrecognized tax benefit, or portion of an unrecognized tax benefit, should be presented in the financial statements as a reduction to a deferred tax asset for a net operating loss carryforward, a similar tax loss, or a tax credit carryforward when such items exist in the same taxing jurisdiction. The amendments in this update are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2013. Early adoption is permitted. The amendments should be applied prospectively to all unrecognized tax benefits that exist at the effective date, and retrospective application is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact this update will have on its financial statements. In February 2013, the Financial Accounting Standards Board("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2013-02, "Reporting Amounts Reclassified Out of Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income," which amends Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 220, "Comprehensive Income." The amended guidance requires entities to provide information about the amounts reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive income by component. Additionally, entities are required to present, either on the face of the financial statements or in the notes, significant amounts reclassified out of accumulated other comprehensive income by the respective line items of net income. The amended guidance does not change the current requirements for reporting net income or other comprehensive income. The amendment is effective prospectively for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2012. The Company believes adoption of this new guidance will not have a material impact on the Company's financial statements as these updates have an impact on presentation only. 35
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