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recognized at the earlier of: (i) delivery of those elements or (ii) when fair value can be established unless support and maintenance is the only undelivered element, in which case, the entire arrangement fee is recognized ratably over the contractual service period. Share-Based Compensation Compensation expense related to share-based transactions, including employee and non-employee director awards, is measured and recognized in the financial statements based on fair value. The fair value of option awards and purchases under our 2012 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (2012 ESPP) is estimated on the grant date. The fair value of restricted stock units (RSUs) is based on the closing market price of our common stock on the date of grant. The share-based compensation expense, net of forfeitures, is recognized using a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards. We estimate a forfeiture rate to calculate the share-based compensation expense for our awards. Our forfeiture rate is based on an analysis of our actual historical forfeitures. The fair value of options and shares sold through our 2012 ESPP is determined using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. Our option-pricing model requires the input of the fair value of our common stock and other subjective assumptions, including the expected term of the award, the expected volatility of the price of our common stock, risk-free interest rates, and the expected dividend yield of our common stock. The assumptions used in our option-pricing model represent management's best estimates. These estimates involve inherent uncertainties and the application of management's judgment. If factors change and different assumptions are used, our share-based compensation expense could be materially different in the future. In addition to assumptions used in the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, we must also estimate a forfeiture rate to calculate the share-based compensation expense for our awards. Quarterly changes in the estimated forfeiture rate can have a significant impact on our share-based compensation expense as the cumulative effect of adjusting the rate is recognized in the period the forfeiture estimate is changed. If a revised forfeiture rate is higher than the previously estimated forfeiture rate, an adjustment is made that will result in a decrease to the share-based compensation expense recognized in the financial statements. If a revised forfeiture rate is lower than the previously estimated forfeiture rate, an adjustment is made that will result in an increase to the share-based compensation expense recognized in the financial statements. We will continue to use judgment in evaluating the assumptions related to our share-based compensation expense on a prospective basis. As we continue to accumulate additional data, we may have refinements to our estimates, which could materially impact our future share-based compensation expense. Income Taxes We account for income taxes using the asset and liability method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or tax returns. In addition, deferred tax assets are recorded for the future benefit of utilizing net operating losses and research and development credit carryforwards. Valuation allowances are provided when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. Significant judgment is required in determining any valuation allowance recorded against deferred tax assets. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider all available evidence, including past operating results, estimates of future taxable income, and the feasibility of tax planning strategies. In the event that we change our determination as to the amount of deferred tax assets that can be realized, we will adjust our valuation allowance with a corresponding impact to the provision for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made. We apply the authoritative accounting guidance prescribing a threshold and measurement attribute for the financial recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. We recognize liabilities for uncertain tax positions based on a two-step process. The first step is to evaluate the tax position for recognition by determining if the weight of available evidence indicates that it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained on audit, including resolution of related appeals or litigation processes, if any. The second step requires us to estimate and measure the tax liability as the largest amount that is more likely than not to be realized upon ultimate settlement. Significant judgment is also required in evaluating our uncertain tax positions and determining our provision for income taxes. Although we believe our reserves are reasonable, no assurance can be given that the final tax outcome of these matters will not be different from that which is reflected in our historical income tax provisions and accruals. We adjust these reserves in light of changing facts and circumstances, such as the closing of a tax audit or the refinement of an estimate. To the extent that the final tax outcome of these matters is different than the amounts recorded, such differences may impact the provision for income taxes in the period in which such determination is made.