We also exclude the following items from non-GAAP net income (loss) and
diluted net income (loss) per share:
We believe that these non-GAAP financial measures provide meaningful supplemental information regarding Intuitís operating results primarily because they exclude amounts that we do not consider part of ongoing operating results when planning and forecasting and when assessing the performance of the organization, our individual operating segments or our senior management. Segment managers are not held accountable for share-based compensation expense, amortization, or the other excluded items and, accordingly, we exclude these amounts from our measures of segment performance. We believe that our non-GAAP financial measures also facilitate the comparison by management and investors of results for current periods and guidance for future periods with results for past periods.
The following are descriptions of the items we exclude from our non-GAAP financial measures.
Share-based compensation expenses. These consist of non-cash expenses for stock options, restricted stock units and our Employee Stock Purchase Plan. When considering the impact of equity awards, we place greater emphasis on overall shareholder dilution rather than the accounting charges associated with those awards.
Amortization of acquired technology and amortization of other acquired intangible assets. When we acquire an entity, we are required by GAAP to record the fair values of the intangible assets of the entity and amortize them over their useful lives. Amortization of acquired technology in cost of revenue includes amortization of software and other technology assets of acquired entities. Amortization of other acquired intangible assets in operating expenses includes amortization of assets such as customer lists, covenants not to compete and trade names.
Goodwill and intangible asset impairment charges. We exclude from our non-GAAP financial measures non-cash charges to adjust the carrying values of goodwill and other acquired intangible assets to their estimated fair values.
Professional fees for business combinations. We exclude from our non-GAAP financial measures the professional fees we incur to complete business combinations. These include investment banking, legal and accounting fees.
Gains and losses on debt securities and other investments. We exclude from our non-GAAP financial measures gains and losses that we record when we sell or impair available-for-sale debt securities and other investments.
Income tax effects of excluded items and certain discrete tax items. We exclude from our non-GAAP financial measures the income tax effects of the items described above, as well as income tax effects related to business combinations. In addition, the effects of one-time income tax adjustments recorded in a specific quarter for GAAP purposes are reflected on a forecasted basis in our non-GAAP financial measures. This is consistent with how we plan, forecast and evaluate our operating results.