· provide updated guidance on whether multiple deliverables exist, how the
elements in an arrangement should be separated, and how the consideration should be allocated; 27
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· require an entity to allocate revenue in an arrangement using estimated selling
price ("ESP") of each element if a vendor does not have vendor specific objective evidence ("VSOE") or third party evidence ("TPE"); and
· eliminate the use of the residual method and require a vendor to allocate
revenue using the relative selling price method.
As a result of the adoption of ASU 2009-13, we allocate revenue to each element in an arrangement based on the following selling price hierarchy: the selling price for a deliverable is based on its VSOE, if available, TPE, if VSOE is not available, or ESP, if neither VSOE nor TPE is available. We have typically been able to establish VSOE of fair value for our maintenance and services. We determine VSOE of fair value for professional services and maintenance by examining the population of selling price for the same or similar services when sold separately and on a standalone basis, and determining that the pricing population for each VSOE classification is within a very narrow range of the median selling price. For each element, we evaluate at least annually whether or not we have maintained VSOE of fair value based on our review of the actual selling price of each element over the previous 12 month period. Our product deliverables are typically comprised of complete systems with numerous hardware and software components that operate together to provide essential functionality, and we are typically unable to establish VSOE or TPE of fair value for our products. Due to the custom nature of our products, we must determine ESP at the individual component level whereby our estimated selling price for the total system is determined based on the sum of the individual components. ESP for components of our real-time products is typically based upon list price, which is representative of our actual selling price. ESP for components of our video solutions products are based upon our most frequent selling price ("mode") of standalone and bundled sales, based upon a 12 month historical analysis. If a mode selling price is not available, then ESP will be the median selling price of all such component sales based upon a 12 month historical analysis, unless facts and circumstances indicate that another selling price, other than the mode or median selling price, is more representative of our estimated selling price. Our methodology for determining estimated selling price requires judgment, and any changes to pricing practices, the costs incurred to integrate products, the nature of our relationships with our customers, and market trends could cause variability in our estimated selling prices or cause us to re-evaluate our methodology for determining estimated selling price. We will update our analysis of mode and median selling price at least annually, unless facts and circumstances indicate that more frequent analysis is required. Occasionally, we sell software under multiple element arrangements that do not include hardware. Under these software arrangements, we allocate revenue to the various elements based on VSOE of fair value. Our VSOE of fair value is determined based on the price charged when the same element is sold separately. If VSOE of fair value does not exist for all elements in a multiple element arrangement, but does exist for undelivered elements, we recognize revenue using the residual method. Under the residual method, the fair value of the undelivered elements is deferred and the remaining portion of the arrangement is recognized as revenue. Where fair value of undelivered elements has not been established, the total arrangement is recognized over the period during which the services are performed.