· persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists,
· the system has been delivered or the services have been performed,
· the fee is fixed or determinable, and
· collection of the fee is probable.
Determination of criteria 3 and 4 above are based on our judgments regarding the fixed nature of the fee charged for products and services delivered and the collectability of those fees.
Our standard multiple-element contractual arrangements with our customers generally include the delivery of systems with multiple components of hardware and software, certain professional services that typically involve installation and consulting, and ongoing software and hardware maintenance. Product revenue is generally recognized when the product is delivered. Professional services that are of a consultative nature may take place prior to, or after, delivery of the system, and installation services typically occur within 90 days after delivery of the system. Professional services revenue is typically recognized as the service is performed. Initial warranty begins after delivery of the system and typically is provided for 90 days to three years after delivery. Maintenance revenue, where applicable, will be recognized ratably over the maintenance period. Our product sales are predominantly system sales whereby software and equipment function together to deliver the essential functionality of the combined product. Upon our adoption of ASU 2009-14 on
July 1, 2010, we determined sales of these systems were typically outside of the scope of the software revenue guidance in Topic 985 (previously included in SOP 97-2) and should be accounted for under ASU 2009-13. Our sales model for MDI products includes the option for customers to purchase: (1) a perpetual license with maintenance; (2) a term license with maintenance and managed services; (3) software as a service, or (4) perpetual license with maintenance and managed services. We expect that revenue from these sales generally will be recognized over the term of the various customer contracts. Professional services attributable to implementation of our MDI products or managed services are essential to the customers' use of these products and services. We defer commencement of revenue recognition for the entire arrangement until we have delivered the essential professional services or have made a determination that the remaining professional services are no longer essential to the customer. We recognize revenue for managed services and software-as-a-service arrangements once we commence providing the managed or software services and recognize the service revenue ratably over the term of the various customer contracts. In circumstances whereby we sell a term or perpetual license and managed services, we commence revenue recognition after both the software and service are made available to the customer and recognize the revenue from the entire arrangement ratably over the longer of the term license or managed service period because we believe the managed services to be essential to the functionality of the term or perpetual license. We evaluate each element in a multiple-element arrangement to determine whether it represents a separate unit of accounting. An element constitutes a separate unit of accounting when the delivered item has standalone value and delivery of the undelivered element is probable and within our control. Our various systems have standalone value because we have either routinely sold them on a standalone basis or we believe that our customers could resell the delivered system on a standalone basis. Professional services have standalone value because we have routinely sold them on a standalone basis, there are similar third-party vendors that routinely provide similar professional services, and certain customers perform the installation themselves. Our maintenance has standalone value because we have routinely sold maintenance separately.