"NIR-DOTNFI is expected to provide a more portable apparatus for functional neuroimaging than possible with fMRI, thereby providing imaging useful for research, as well as diagnosing a variety of psychiatric conditions and identifying lesions including tumors in a subject. A second advantage of NIR-DOTFNI over fMRI is its superior temporal resolution over fMRI, which permits detailed quantitative analysis of the time-course of the hemodynamic response. A third advantage of NIR-DOTFNI over fMRI is its ability to determine changes in blood volume, oxygenation and flow through the use of multiple colors of laser light and spectroscopic analysis and computer modeling.
"NIR-DOTNFI apparatus may also prove useful for determining truth and falsity of statements made by a suspect, although this is still a subject of research. Other potential applications of NIR-DOTNFI include, but are not limited to, brain computer interface (BCI), real-time neurofeedback for academic learning, real-time neurofeedback for rehabilitation training, acute patient monitoring in the neuro-intensive care unit, and attention monitoring for pilots and drivers.
"An optode is a device for coupling light between optical or optoelectronic components (such as fiber bundles and/or lasers and/or photo-detectors) and a surface (such as skin or mucus membranes) of a subject. An optode may be used to couple light into the surface of the subject, out of the surface, or both. Optodes are typically connected to an end of a flexible light guide such as fiber-optic fibers or bundles or liquid light guides that in turn connect to light emitting devices such as lasers and/or light measuring and detecting apparatus such as photodiodes; some optodes may be used for light emission into the subject, some for light detection, and some for both. The optic fibers or bundles or liquid light guides may be bifurcated, quadfurcated, or further divided to or from the optode for the purpose of, for example, coupling multiple colors of laser light into the surface or coupling the light collected from multiple optodes into a single detector. The light emitting apparatus such as lasers and/or light measuring and detecting apparatus may be worn by the subject, or may be located several meters away.
"Some optode designs have proved to be bulky, others have proved to be incompatible with EEG, MEG or fMRI, others have proved time consuming to attach to a subject, overly difficult to attach, or to be too painful to the subject for practical use.
"U.S. Pat. No. 5,361,316 to
In addition to the background information obtained for this patent, NewsRx journalists also obtained the inventor's summary information for this patent: "An optode for a functional near-infrared diffuse optical neuroimaging system uses a GRIN lens and prism for coupling to an optical fiber at a right-angle to the lens. The lens is inserted into a grommet for attachment to an elastomeric cap worn by a subject. In an embodiment, the cap also has an array of electroencephalographic electrodes, with optodes arranged such that an optical path exists between a transmitter and a receiver optode beneath each electroencephalographic electrode."
URL and more information on this patent, see: Diamond, Solomon G.. System, Optode and Cap for Near-Infrared Diffuse-Optical Function Neuroimaging. U.S. Patent Number 8527035, filed
Keywords for this news article include: The Trustees of
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