"Cerebral hypoxia refers to a condition in which there is a decrease of oxygen supply to the brain even though there is adequate blood flow. Drowning, strangling, choking, suffocation, cardiac arrest, head trauma, carbon monoxide poisoning, and complications of general anesthesia can create conditions that can lead to cerebral hypoxia. Symptoms of mild cerebral hypoxia include inattentiveness, poor judgment, memory loss, and a decrease in motor coordination. Brain cells are extremely sensitive to oxygen deprivation and can begin to die within five minutes after oxygen supply has been cut off. When hypoxia lasts for longer periods of time, it can cause coma, seizures, and even brain death. Brain injury can also occur due to radiation exposure or chemotherapy.
"Spasticity is a condition in which there is an abnormal increase in muscle tone or stiffness of muscle, which might interfere with movement, speech, or be associated with discomfort or pain. Spasticity is usually caused by damage to nerve pathways within the brain or spinal cord that control muscle movement. It may occur in association with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, stroke, brain or head trauma, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, hereditary spastic paraplegias, and metabolic diseases such as adrenoleukodystrophy, phenylketonuria, and Krabbe disease. Symptoms may include hypertonicity (increased muscle tone), clonus (a series of rapid muscle contractions), exaggerated deep tendon reflexes, muscle spasms, scissoring (involuntary crossing of the legs), and fixed joints (contractures). The degree of spasticity varies from mild muscle stiffness to severe, painful, and uncontrollable muscle spasms. Spasticity can interfere with rehabilitation in patients with certain disorders, and often interferes with daily activities. (From the
"The methods of the present invention are designed to treat mammals, including humans, following stroke or other forms of neurological or brain injury (BI). Causes of BI include, but are not limited to stroke, automobile accident, anesthesia accident, near-drowning, or cerebral hemorrhage. The most common causes of BI are stroke, trauma (falls, automobile accidents, or firearm accidents); birth injuries or cerebral hypoxia. BI causes widespread, unmet medical needs, producing chronic motor deficits, spasticity, sensory deficits, cognitive deficits, deficits in attention, and alterations in mood and behavior for which current medical treatment is inadequate. Cerebral palsy is caused by brain injury prior to birth, at birth, or within the first two years of life.
"Following brain injury various neuropsychiatric disorders may develop, including depression, anxiety, agitation, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD symptoms include flashbacks or bad dreams, emotional numbness, intense guilt or worry, angry outbursts, feeling 'on edge,' or avoiding thoughts and situations that remind them of the trauma. In PTSD, these symptoms last at least one month (
"Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) (the term 'TNF' is equivalent to and used interchangeably herein with the term 'TNF-alpha') is an endogenous molecule that modulates neuronal communication and the immune response. TNF plays a key role in the inflammatory response, in the immune response, and in the response to infection. TNF is formed by the cleavage of a precursor transmembrane protein, forming soluble molecules which aggregate in vivo to form trimolecular complexes. These complexes then bind to receptors found on a variety of cells. Binding produces an array of pro-inflammatory effects, including release of other inflammatory molecules, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-1; release of matrix metalloproteinases; and up-regulation of the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, further amplifying the inflammatory and immune cascade by attracting leukocytes into extravascular tissues.
Most Popular Stories
- Bipartisan Budget Deal Gets Key Support in House
- Bitcoin Clones Lurch Onto Financial Scene
- Clinton to Keynote Annual Simmons Leadership Conference
- GM to Stop Making Autos in Australia
- Selena Gomez, Shakira Among Top Hispanic Searches
- PhD Project Grooms Business Profs
- How Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies Work
- Futures Fall, Holiday Spending and Unemployment Up
- Budget Deal Will Cut 220,000 Californians Out of Jobless Benefits
- Oil Nears $98 a Barrel