Histopathology The study of changes in tissues and cells as a
consequence of some disease or toxic processes.
Human Tissue Authority The HTA licenses organisations that store and use
(`HTA') human tissue for purposes such as research,
patient treatment, post-mortem examination,
teaching and public exhibitions. The HTA also
inspect organisations to check that they maintain
good standards and follow appropriate procedures
against the legislation of the Human Tissue Act
Immunohistochemistry (`IHC') IHC is a technique for visualising proteins and
other molecules in thin sections of tissue. This
technique uses antibodies raised in other species
against the protein of interest as a tool, and
exploits their exquisite sensitivity and
specificity for binding to that protein.
K-RAS K-RAS is a gene that produces an important cell
signalling protein responsible for cell growth.
The presence of a mutated form of the K-RAS gene
in colorectal cancer may indicate that a patient
is unsuitable for new anti-EGFR drugs such as
Erbitux(TM) and Vectibix(TM).
Liquid based cytology LBC is a process for collecting and processing
(`LBC') cervical cytology samples from epithelial tissues
such as the cervix. It produces a cleaner
preparation of cells, without the other materials
which frequently contaminate the sample such as
blood or mucus.
Microarray Microarrays are a microscopic series of nucleic
acid spots of known sequence which are deposited
in a regular array typically onto a glass slide. A
DNA or RNA probe can then be hybridised to the
slide which results in a DNA or RNA fingerprint of
the sample in the probe enabling scientists to
determine genotypes or gene expressions levels.
Next Generation DNA NGS refers generically to a set of recent
Sequencing (`NGS'), Illumina technologies, in our case Illumina HiSeq 2000(TM) and
HiSeq 2000(TM) and Illumina Illumina MiSeq(TM), in which extremely large numbers
MiSeq(TM) of short sequences can be determined in a single
experiment; for example the Illumina HiSeq 2000(TM)
selected by Source BioScience can sequence two
human genomes in ten days.
No further review (`NFR') A unique feature of the BD FocalPoint(TM) automated
cytology imaging platform that can identify up to
25% of cytology slides that are considered to be
negative. These slides do not require further
primary manual review, thereby improving the
turnaround time and efficiency in the laboratory
operations, saving time and cost for the NHS.
Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR is a laboratory technique which specifically
(`PCR') and exponentially amplifies a single or a few
copies of a segment of DNA. The resulting product
is an indicator of the presence of the original
segment of DNA or the product can be used as the
material for further experiments, for example
genotyping or DNA sequencing.
Proteomics The study of specific amino acids, proteins or the
entire proteome (a complete translated genome, see
above) of an organism. Proteomic techniques
include, for example, surveying complex biological
samples for protein content, or determining the
level of specific proteins in tissues using
techniques like immunohistochemistry (IHC, see
reSourceTM Brand name carried by the Source BioScience
LifeSciences product portfolio.
RiboNucleic Acid (`RNA') RNA is a molecule similar to DNA, but is an
intermediate product between the DNA of the gene,
and the ultimate protein product of that gene. The
level of expression of a gene can be gauged by the
amount of RNA synthesised from that gene, a
process usually measured by quantitative real-time
polymerase chain reaction (`Q-PCR').
RNA expression analysis A process to measure the activity of a number of
genes simultaneously, generating a global picture
of cellular function. The expression analyses, or
profiles, can distinguish between cells that are
actively dividing, for example, or show how the
cells react to a particular treatment. Testing of
genome-wide RNA expression levels have been
performed by microarray analysis but the
experiments are now as likely to be performed by
Serology The study of general antigen-antibody reactions in
a laboratory setting and the specific blood test
conducted to test for the presence of antibodies.
A serology test is performed to determine a
patient's blood type and to test for, and
identify, an infection.
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