Allowance for Doubtful Accounts. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts based upon historical write-offs and management's review of outstanding accounts receivable. Amounts due from customers are charged against the allowance for doubtful accounts when management believes that collectability of the amount is unlikely. Although we have not historically experienced significant losses on accounts receivable, our accounts receivable are concentrated with a small number of customers. Consequently, any write-off associated with one of these customers could have a significant impact on our allowance for doubtful accounts and results of operations. 47
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Inventories. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost, on a first-in, first-out basis, or market. We use a standard cost system to determine cost. The standard costs are adjusted periodically to represent actual cost. We regularly compare forecasted demand and the composition of the forecast against inventory on hand and open purchase commitments in an effort to ensure that the carrying value of inventory does not exceed net realizable value. Accordingly, we may have to reduce the carrying value of excess and obsolete inventory if forecasted demand decreases. Intangible Assets and Other Long-Lived Assets. Intangible assets resulting from acquisitions or licensing agreements are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment charges, if any. For assets with determinable useful lives, amortization is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated economic lives of the respective intangible assets, ranging from one to twelve years. Acquired in-process research and development (IPR&D) is recorded at fair value as an indefinite-lived intangible asset at the acquisition date until the completion or abandonment of the associated research and development efforts or impairment. IPR&D projects relate to in-process projects that have not reached technological feasibility as of the acquisition date and have no alternative future use. Upon completion of development, acquired in-process research and development assets are transferred to finite-lived intangible assets and amortized over their useful lives. We assess whether our intangible assets and other long-lived assets should be tested for recoverability periodically and whenever events or circumstances indicate that their carrying value may not be recoverable. The amount of impairment, if any, is measured based on fair value, which is determined using projected discounted future operating cash flows. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less selling costs. Goodwill. Goodwill is recorded as the difference, if any, between the aggregate consideration paid for an acquisition and the fair value of the acquired net tangible and intangible assets. Goodwill is not amortized, but instead, is tested at least annually for impairment, or more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that goodwill might be impaired. In assessing goodwill impairment for each of its reporting units, we have the option to first assess the qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that the fair value of such reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. The Company's qualitative assessment of the recoverability of goodwill considers various macro-economic, industry-specific and company-specific factors. These factors include: (i) severe adverse industry or economic trends; (ii) significant company-specific actions, including exiting an activity in conjunction with restructuring of operations; (iii) current, historical or projected deterioration of the Company's financial performance; or (iv) a sustained decrease in the Company's market capitalization below its net book value. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, we determine it is unlikely that the fair value of such reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then performing the two-step impairment test is unnecessary. However, if we conclude otherwise, then we are required to perform the first step of the two-step impairment test by comparing the fair value of the reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of the reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill is not considered impaired; otherwise, goodwill is considered impaired and the loss is measured by performing step two. Under step two, the impairment loss is measured by comparing the implied fair value of the reporting unit goodwill with the carrying amount of goodwill. We also have the option to bypass the qualitative assessment and proceed directly to performing the first step of the two-step goodwill impairment test. We may resume performing the qualitative assessment in any subsequent period.