Average Revenue Per Subscription or ARPU. Management reviews this metric, and believes it may be useful to investors, in order to evaluate the potential of our subscription base to generate revenues from a variety of sources, including service fees, advertising, and audience research measurement. You should not use ARPU as a substitute for measures of financial performance calculated in accordance with GAAP. Management believes it is useful to consider this metric excluding the costs associated with rebates, revenue share, and other payments to channel because of the discretionary and varying nature of these expenses and because management believes these expenses, which are included in hardware revenues, net, are more appropriately monitored as part of SAC. We are not aware of any uniform standards for calculating ARPU and caution that our presentation may not be consistent with that of other companies. Furthermore, ARPU for our MSOs may not be directly comparable to the service fees we may receive from these partners on a per subscription basis as the fees that our MSOs pay us may be based upon a specific contractual definition of a subscriber or subscription which may not be consistent with how we define a subscription for our reporting purposes or be representative of how such subscription fees are calculated and paid to us by our MSOs. For example, an agreement that includes contractual minimums may result in a higher than expected MSOs' ARPU if such fixed minimum fee is spread over a small number of subscriptions. Additionally, ARPU for our MSO subscriptions may not be reflective of revenues received by TiVo as in certain cases the cost of development for such MSO customer may be deferred on our consolidated balance sheet until later when related revenues from service fees are received and are first recognized as Technology revenues by us until the previously deferred costs of development are fully expensed. This recognition of service fees as Technology revenues will have the effect of lowering ARPU for certain of our MSO subscriptions until such costs of development are fully expensed.
We calculate ARPU per month for TiVo-Owned subscriptions by subtracting MSOs'-related service revenues (which includes MSOs' subscription service revenues and MSOs'-related advertising revenues) from our total reported net service revenues and dividing the result by the number of months in the period. We then divide the resulting average service revenue by Average TiVo-Owned subscriptions for the period, calculated as described above for churn rate. The above table shows this calculation.
We calculate ARPU per month for TiVo-Owned subscriptions by subtracting MSOs'-related service revenues (which includes MSOs' subscription service revenues and MSOs'-related advertising and audience research measurement revenues) from our total reported net service revenues and dividing the result by the number of months in the period. We then divide the resulting average service revenue by Average TiVo-Owned subscriptions for the period, calculated as described above for churn rate. The above table shows this calculation.
We calculate ARPU per month for MSOs' subscriptions by first subtracting TiVo-Owned-related service revenues (which includes TiVo-Owned subscription service revenues and TiVo-Owned related advertising revenues) from our total reported service revenues. Then we divide average revenues per month for MSOs'-related service revenues by the average MSOs' subscriptions for the period. The above table shows this calculation.
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