º The functionality of the delivered element(s) is not
the undelivered element(s). º • º There is VSOE of fair value of the undelivered element(s). º • º Delivery of the delivered element(s) represents the
culmination of the earnings process for that element(s). 38
Table of Contents
If these criteria are not met, the software revenue is deferred until the earlier of when such criteria are met or when the last undelivered element is delivered. If there is VSOE of the undelivered item(s) but no such evidence for the delivered item(s), the residual method is used to allocate the arrangement consideration. Under the residual method, the amount of consideration allocated to the delivered item(s) equals the total arrangement consideration less the aggregate VSOE of the undelivered elements. In cases where VSOE is not established for PCS, revenue is recognized ratably over the PCS period after all software deliverables have been made and the only undelivered item is PCS.
Allowances for Doubtful Accounts
We perform credit evaluations of our customers' financial condition. We maintain allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments. We record our bad debt expenses as SG&A expenses. When we become aware that a specific customer is unable to meet its financial obligations to us, for example, as a result of bankruptcy or deterioration in the customer's operating results or financial position, we record a specific allowance to reflect the level of credit risk in the customer's outstanding receivable balance. In addition, we record additional allowances based on certain percentages of our aged receivable balances. These percentages are determined by a variety of factors including, but not limited to, current economic trends, historical payment and bad debt write-off experience. We are not able to predict changes in the financial condition of our customers, and if circumstances related to our customers deteriorate, our estimates of the recoverability of our trade receivables could be materially affected and we may be required to record additional allowances. Alternatively, if we provide more allowances than we need, we may reverse a portion of such provisions in future periods based on our actual collection experience.
We estimate the fair value of stock options with service conditions and employee stock purchase plan awards ("ESPP") using the Black-Scholes-Merton option-pricing model and a single option award approach. This option-pricing model requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the award's expected life and the price volatility of the underlying stock. The expected stock price volatility assumption is determined using a combination of historical and implied volatility of our common stock. We use the Lattice model to estimate the fair value of certain performance-based options with market conditions ("market-condition options"). The fair value of the time-based Full Value Awards is based on the closing market price of our common stock on the date of award. We use a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the fair value of certain performance-based Full Value Awards with market conditions ("MSUs").