The recognition and measurement of current taxes payable or refundable and
deferred tax assets and liabilities requires that we make certain estimates and
judgments. Changes to these estimates or a change in judgment may have a
material impact on our tax provision in a future period.
We provide reserves for the estimated costs of product warranties at the time revenue is recognized. We estimate the costs of our warranty obligations based on our historical experience of known product failure rates, use of materials to repair or replace defective products and service delivery costs incurred in correcting product failures. In addition, from time to time, specific warranty accruals may be made if unforeseen technical problems arise. Should our actual experience relative to these factors differ from our estimates, we may be required to record additional warranty reserves. Alternatively, if we provide more reserves than we need, we may reverse a portion of such provisions in future periods.
In accordance with authoritative guidance on accounting for costs associated with exit or disposal activities, generally costs associated with restructuring activities are recognized when they are incurred. However, in the case of leases, the expense is estimated and accrued when the property is vacated. Given the significance of, and the timing of the execution of such activities, this process is complex and involves periodic reassessments of estimates made from the time the property was vacated, including evaluating real estate market conditions for expected vacancy periods and sub-lease income. Additionally, a liability for post-employment benefits for workforce reductions related to restructuring activities is recorded when payment is probable, the amount is reasonably estimable, and the obligation relates to rights that have vested or accumulated. We continually evaluate the adequacy of the remaining liabilities under our restructuring initiatives. Although we believe that these estimates 42
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accurately reflect the costs of our restructuring plans, actual results may differ, thereby requiring us to record additional provisions or reverse a portion of such provisions.
Pension and Other Postretirement Benefits
The funded status of our retirement-related benefit plans is recognized in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. The funded status is measured as the difference between the fair value of plan assets and the benefit obligation at fiscal year end, the measurement date. For defined benefit pension plans, the benefit obligation is the projected benefit obligation ("PBO") and for the non-pension postretirement benefit plan the benefit obligation is the accumulated postretirement benefit obligation ("APBO"). The PBO represents the actuarial present value of benefits expected to be paid upon retirement. The APBO represents the actuarial present value of postretirement benefits attributed to employee services already rendered. The fair value of plan assets represents the current market value of cumulative Company contributions made to an irrevocable trust fund, held for the sole benefit of participants. Unfunded or partially funded plans, with the benefit obligation exceeding the fair value of plan assets, are aggregated and recorded as a retirement and non-pension postretirement benefit obligation equal to this excess. The current portion of the retirement-related benefit obligation represents the actuarial present value of benefits payable in the next 12 months in excess of the fair value of plan assets, measured on a plan-by-plan basis. This liability is recorded in other current liabilities in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.