"Within the different carbon nanotube types, there are single-wall structures and multiple-wall structures, besides a differentiation according to elements to be bound to nanotube walls by means of physical and/or chemical treatments. For example, carbon atoms can be replaced by different elements in the walls. Among these are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, oxygen, boron, etc. Additionally, there is a possibility to have covalent groups covalently bound to nanotube walls, particularly methyl, carbonyl, hydroxyl groups, etc. The modification of tube surface either by doping or functionalizing increases surface reactivity thereof, which is essential to create strong interactions among nanotubes and matrixes in question such as cement or concrete."
In addition to the background information obtained for this patent application, VerticalNews journalists also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent application: "Considering that nanostructures are able to transfer bulk properties to the concrete matrix when mixing correctly, homogeneously and at an adequate rate, and that hydraulic concrete of cement-water plus aggregates may accept external agents, it has been determined to be possible to generate a new family of nanostructured cements with improved mechanical properties by adding minimal amounts of nanomaterials (e.g. 0.1-10% by weight). In this regard, it is important to mention that the works of
"None of the above mentioned documents used doped or functionalized multiple-walled carbon nanotubes that importantly increase the load transference of tubes to concrete due to the doping or functionalized sites of nanotubes.
"In general, concrete can be considered as a series of bound spores believed to give the compound a high strength since they are 'urchin'-like inter-bound, such structure being considered to handle better the strength. As the urchins are not inter-bound by their points and they separate under stress. The present invention is related to the integration of such crystalline structures catalyzing the same in the wall of our tubes. Upon doping such nanotubes they become more reactive allowing such a binding, binding so the spores with a similar size element such as the nanotube, obtaining in this manner a double effect, upon compression the tubes binding spore to spore act as a containment, increasing their compressive strength, and upon stress the tube acts as a tensor between spores growing in its surface.
"By 'hybrid' materials according to the present invention, is meant the inclusion of doped nanotubes (bamboo type), nanobars of SiOx and nanoplates (or nanoflakes of SiOx, AlOx).
"It is important to mention that the use of doped nanotubes and particularly nitrogen-doped nanotubes, when mixing with concrete, promote the growth of nanostructures of SiOx (flakes and bars) increasing by two the concrete mechanical properties. When nitrogen-doped nanotubes are not added but other nanotubes (such as those of the above cited documents, wherein materials that are not nitrogen-doped are used) are added, these new structures of SiOx and AlOx NO interact with nanotubes. Therefore, the combination of nitrogen-doped nanotubes, SiOx and AlOx flakes and SiOx nanobars forms a new hybrid nanomaterial which is more resistant within the concrete.
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