"In one application, a thirteen watt (13 W) bulb is used to generate the light output of a sixty watt (60 W) incandescent bulb. It appears that approximately three watts of energy are dedicated to the light output for the LED bulb, while the remaining power is lost in the AC/DC conversion. Harmonic issues also exist when converting from AC to DC which tends to make the lights hum while operating. In addition, LED light bulbs that have AC/DC conversion built into them tend to burn hot. Many of the manufacturers build heat sinks into such bulbs to dissipate the heat. However, such heat still presents a less-safe environment and lessens the life of the bulb and the socket. Moreover, because these bulbs still operate with a one hundred twenty volt AC (120VAC) socket, a shock hazard remains if a person comes in contact with a live socket. The risk of shock is not alleviated by replacing the incandescent bulb with a standard off-the-shelf LED bulb.
"Current temporary lighting systems, commonly referred to as lighting streamers, used during heavy construction activities typically employ incandescent light bulbs on twenty amp, one hundred twenty volt AC (20 A, 120VAC) circuits. Various construction projects locations have adopted different standards regarding the use of particular wattage bulbs and the distance between sockets. Such standards commonly require the use of sixty watt (60 W) bulbs, seventy-five watt (75 W) bulbs and/or one hundred watt (100 W) bulbs. Common distances between sockets positioned on the lighting streamers include five feet (5') and ten feet (10') intervals.
"One known prior art lighting streamer system extends for a length of fifty feet (50') and includes ten (10) sockets on five foot (5') centers. The lighting streamers are designed to interconnect or daisy-chain several fifty foot (50') sections together. Using seventy-five watt (75 W) bulbs, each bulb requires a nominal current of 0.625 Amps (75 W/120V). At a max loading of 80%, thereby accounting for line loss over distance and power factor efficiencies at each light bulb, the maximum amount of seventy-five watt (75 W) bulbs that can be served by one twenty amp/one hundred twenty volt (20 A, 120V) power source is twenty-six (26) bulbs (20 A.times.80%=16 A; 16 A/0.625 A/bulb=25.6 bulbs).
"Several issues arise with the use of the prior art lighting streamer system. Incandescent light bulbs are becoming obsolete and such bulbs become extremely hot due to the nature of their inefficiency. The life expectancy of such bulbs is short which requires higher maintenance costs. A system rated at one hundred twenty volts AC (120VAC) presents a shock hazard per the guidelines and safety codes issued by the
"The use of LED bulbs in prior art lighting streamer system requires an increased investment per bulb; therefore, protecting the LED bulbs, or making the LED bulbs outdoor-rated, is important for maximizing return-on-investment. However, the use of LED bulbs on the standard system is problematic in that a rectifier needs to be built into each bulb to convert AC to DC at each socket with potential for harmonic issues. Rectifiers found in off-the-shelf LED bulbs typically consume three-times more energy than the actual LED bulbs consume for lighting which results in an inefficient solution."
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