DISCLOSURE CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES AND INTERNAL CONTROLS OVER FINANCIAL REPORTING
The Company's President and Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") and Vice President Finance and Chief Financial Officer ("CFO") are responsible for establishing and maintaining disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting as defined in Multilateral Instrument 52-109 of the Canadian Securities Administrators.
Disclosure controls and procedures have been designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company is accumulated and communicated to management as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. The Company evaluated its disclosure controls and procedures for the year ended December 31, 2012. The Company's CEO and CFO have concluded that, based on their evaluation, the Company's disclosure controls and procedures are effective to provide reasonable assurance that all material or potentially material information related to the Company is made known to them and is disclosed in a timely manner if required.
Internal controls over financial reporting have been designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with IFRS. The Company's internal controls over financial reporting include those policies and procedures that: pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect transactions and disposition of the assets; provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and that receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors; and provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of assets that could have a material effect on the annual financial statements or interim financial statements.
The Company evaluated the effectiveness of its internal controls over financial reporting as of December 31, 2012. In making this evaluation, management used the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in Internal Control-Integrated Framework. Based on their evaluation, the Company's CEO and CFO have identified weaknesses over segregation of duties. Specifically, due to the limited number of finance and accounting personnel at the Company, it is not feasible to achieve complete segregation of duties with regards to certain complex and non-routine accounting transactions that may arise. This weakness is considered to be a common deficiency for many smaller listed companies in Canada. Notwithstanding the weaknesses identified with regards to segregation of duties, the Company concluded that all other of its internal controls over financial reporting were effective as of December 31, 2012. No material changes in the Company's internal controls over financial reporting were identified during the most recent reporting period that have materially affected, or are likely to material affect, the Company's internal controls over financial reporting.
Because of their inherent limitations, disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements, errors, or fraud. Control systems, no matter how well conceived or operated, can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurance that the objectives of the control systems are met. As a result of the weaknesses identified in the Company's internal controls over financial reporting, there is a greater likelihood that a material misstatement would not be prevented or detected. To mitigate the risk of such material misstatement in financial reporting, the CEO and CFO oversee all material and complex transactions of the Company and the financial statements are reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors each quarter. In addition, the Company will seek the advice of external parties, such as the Company's external auditors, in regards to the appropriate accounting treatment for any complex and non-routine transactions that may arise.
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