Gross profit for the six months ended
Depreciation and amortization expense of
R&D expense of
Facility closures, severance and related costs of
$25 millionin the six months ended June 30, 2013compared with $7 millionfor the six months ended June 30, 2012. The expense relates to our cost saving initiatives announced in 2013 and 2012. Changes in estimates related to expected allowable claims were $2 millionfor the six months ended June 30, 2012, as we reduced the number of claims remaining in our Disputed Claim Reserve.
Interest expense of
Other income, net was
$15 millionfor the six months ended June 30, 2013compared with $2 millionfor the six months ended June 30, 2012. During 2013, we recognized a gain of $15 millionrelated to the release of cumulative translation adjustments associated with the rationalization of certain European subsidiaries that are no longer required. Reorganization items, net of $1 millionin the six months ended June 30, 2013was $2 millionlower than the six months ended June 30, 2012. The expense in both periods primarily comprised professional fees directly associated with the Chapter 11 reorganization.
The income tax expense in the six months ended
tax expense reported for the six month period ended
June 30, 2013reflected fluctuations in jurisdictional profitability. The tax expense reported for the six months ended June 30, 2012reflected fluctuations in jurisdictional profitability as well as the tax benefit of the second quarter restructuring charge. We have offset our current year-to-date U.S. income with net operating loss carryforwards and reduced the associated valuation allowance.