Costs directly attributable to an exploration well are initially capitalized as exploration and evaluation assets. If hydrocarbons are not found, the exploration expenditure is written off as a dry hole. If hydrocarbons are found and, subject to further appraisal activity, which may include the drilling of further wells, may be capable of commercial development, the costs continue to be carried as an asset. All such carried costs are subject to regular technical, commercial and management review to confirm the continued intent to develop or otherwise extract value from the discovery. When this is no longer the case, the costs are written off. When proved reserves of oil and natural gas are determined and development is sanctioned, the relevant expenditure is transferred to development assets.
All other exploration costs are expensed when incurred.
(iv) Development and production expenditure
Expenditure for development and production assets including the costs of drilling development wells and the construction of production facilities are capitalized under development assets and transferred to producing assets when they are put in use. After recognition as an asset, development and producing assets are carried at cost less any accumulated depletion and impairment losses.
The Company enters into agreements to transfer a portion of its interests in oil and gas properties (farm-outs) to third parties. Proceeds from these arrangements are first deducted from any exploration and evaluation and development assets recorded for the property and any excess is recognized as other income.
j. Other property, plant and equipment
Items of property, plant and equipment are initially recorded at cost and subsequently measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. Initial costs include expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset. The costs of the day-to-day servicing of items of property, plant and equipment are recognized in income as incurred.
k. Intangible assets
Intangible assets acquired separately and with finite useful lives are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment losses. Amortization of intangible assets with finite useful lives is provided on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives. Alternatively, intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are carried at cost less any subsequent accumulated impairment losses.
Gains or losses arising from derecognition of an intangible asset are measured at the difference between the net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the asset and are recognized in income when the asset is derecognized.
l. Depletion and depreciation
Exploration and evaluation assets and development assets are not depreciated.
The net carrying value of producing assets is depleted using the unit-of-production method by reference to the ratio of production in the year to the related total proved reserves of oil and natural gas, taking into account estimated future development costs necessary to bring those reserves into production.
Depreciation for finance lease assets is consistent with that for depreciable assets that are owned. Depreciation for finance lease assets is charged based on the unit-of-production method over the life of the total proved reserves.
For other assets, depreciation is recognized in profit or loss on a diminishing balance or straight-line basis depending on the nature of the asset over the estimated useful lives of each group of property, plant and equipment. Land is not depreciated.
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