Non-GAAP license cost of revenue, subscription and maintenance support cost of revenue, and professional services and other cost of revenue. BroadSoft defines non-GAAP cost of revenue as cost of revenue less stock-based compensation expense and amortization expense for acquired intangible assets. BroadSoft considers non-GAAP cost of revenue to be a useful metric for management and our investors because it excludes the effect of certain non-cash expenses so management and its investors can compare BroadSoft's cost of revenue over multiple periods. Where BroadSoft provides further breakdown of non-GAAP cost of revenue between license, subscription and maintenance support and professional services and other, the Company subtracts the stock-based compensation expense and amortization expense, as applicable, to the related cost of revenue.
Non-GAAP income from operations. BroadSoft defines non-GAAP income from operations as income from operations plus stock-based compensation expense and amortization expense for acquired intangible assets. BroadSoft considers non-GAAP income from operations to be a useful metric for management and investors because it excludes the effect of certain non-cash expenses so management and investors can compare BroadSoft's core business operating results over multiple periods. Where BroadSoft provides further breakdown of non-GAAP operating expenses for sales and marketing, research and development and general and administrative, the Company deducts stock-based compensation expense included in the applicable expense item.
Billings. BroadSoft defines billings as revenue plus the net change in our deferred revenue balance for a particular period. BroadSoft believes that billings is a key measure of our business activity.
With respect to our expectations under "Guidance" above, reconciliation of non-GAAP earnings per share guidance to the closest corresponding GAAP measure is not available without unreasonable efforts on a forward-looking basis due to the high variability, complexity and low visibility with respect to the charges excluded from these non-GAAP measures, in particular, the measures and effects of non-cash income taxes, which are extremely difficult to project as a result of our tax status in a number of foreign jurisdictions, and stock-based compensation expense specific to equity compensation awards that are directly impacted by unpredictable fluctuations in our stock price. We expect the variability of the above charges to have a significant, and potentially unpredictable, impact on our future GAAP financial results.
The presentation of non-GAAP net income, non-GAAP net income per share, non-GAAP gross margin, non-GAAP income from operations, billings and other non-GAAP financial measures in this release and on this afternoon's teleconference is not meant to be a substitute for "net income," "net income per share," "gross margin," "income from operations" or other financial measures presented in accordance with GAAP, but rather should be evaluated in conjunction with such data. BroadSoft's definition of "non-GAAP net income," "non-GAAP net income per share," "non-GAAP gross margin," "non-GAAP income from operations," "billings" and other non-GAAP financial measures may differ from similarly titled non-GAAP measures used by other companies and may differ from period to period. In reporting non-GAAP measures in the future, management may make other adjustments for expenses and gains it does not consider reflective of core operating performance in a particular period and may modify "non-GAAP net income," "non-GAAP net income per share," "non-GAAP gross margin," "non-GAAP income from operations," "billings" and such other non-GAAP measures by excluding these expenses and gains.
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