(i) Flow-through common shares:
Periodically, the Company finances a portion of its exploration and development activities through the issuance of flow-through shares. The resource expenditure deductions for income tax purposes related to exploratory development activities are renounced to investors in accordance with tax legislation. Flow-through shares issued are recorded in share capital at the fair value of common shares on the date of issue. The premium received on issuing flow-through shares is initially recorded as a deferred liability. As qualifying expenditures are incurred, the premium is reversed and a deferred income tax liability is recorded. The net amount is then recognized as deferred income tax expense.
(j) Share-based payments:
The Company applies the fair-value method for valuing share option grants. Under this method, compensation cost attributable to all share options granted are measured at fair value at the grant date and expensed over the vesting period with a corresponding increase to contributed surplus. A forfeiture rate is estimated on the grant date and is adjusted to reflect the actual number of options or units that vest. Upon the exercise of the share options, consideration received, together with the amount previously recognized in contributed surplus, is recorded as an increase to share capital.
(k) Per-share information:
Basic per-share information is computed by dividing income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. The treasury-stock method is used to determine the diluted per share amounts, whereby any proceeds from the share options, warrants or other dilutive instruments are assumed to be used to purchase common shares at the average market price during the period. The weighted average number of shares outstanding is then adjusted by the net change.
(l) Leased assets:
Leases where the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. Upon initial recognition, the leased asset is measured at an amount equal to the lower of its fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Subsequent to initial recognition, the asset is accounted for in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to that asset.
Minimum lease payments made under finance leases are apportioned between the finance expenses and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance expenses are allocated to each year during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.
Other leases are operating leases, which are not recognized on the Company's statement of financial position.
3. FUTURE ACCOUNTING CHANGES
The following pronouncements from the IASB will become effective for financial reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2013 and have not yet been adopted by the Company. All of these new or revised standards permit early adoption with transitional arrangements depending upon the date of initial application.
IFRS 9 - Financial Instruments addresses the classification and measurement of financial assets.
IFRS 10 - Consolidated Financial Statements builds on existing principles and standards and identifies the concept of control as the determining factor in whether an entity should be included within the consolidated financial statements of the parent company.
IFRS 11 - Joint Arrangements establishes the principles for financial reporting by entities when they have an interest in arrangements that are jointly controlled.
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