(b) Financial instruments:
(i) Non-derivative financial instruments:
Non-derivative financial instruments comprise accounts receivable, cash and cash equivalents, investments, bank overdrafts, bank debt, and accounts payable and accrued liabilities. Non-derivative financial instruments are recognized initially at fair value plus, for instruments not at fair value through profit or loss, any directly attributable transaction costs. Subsequent to initial recognition, non-derivative financial instruments are measured as described below:
Cash and cash equivalents:
Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash on hand, term deposits held with banks, other short-term highly-liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less, and are measured similar to other non-derivative financial instruments.
An instrument is classified at fair value through profit or loss if it is held for trading or is designated as such upon initial recognition. Tourmaline's investments in public companies are designated as held for trading. Financial instruments are designated at fair value through profit or loss if the Company manages such investments and makes purchase and sale decisions based on their fair value in accordance with the Company's risk management or investment strategy. Upon initial recognition, attributable transaction costs are recognized in profit or loss when incurred. Financial instruments at fair value through profit or loss are measured at fair value, and changes therein are recognized in profit or loss.
Other non-derivative financial instruments, such as accounts receivable, bank debt, and accounts payable and accrued liabilities, are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment losses. The bank debt has a floating rate of interest and therefore the carrying value approximates the fair value.
(ii) Derivative financial instruments:
The Company has entered into certain financial derivative contracts in order to manage the exposure to market risks from fluctuations in commodity prices and interest rates. These instruments are not used for trading or speculative purposes. The Company has not designated its financial derivative contracts as effective accounting hedges, and thus not applied hedge accounting, even though the Company considers all commodity contracts to be economic hedges. As a result, all financial derivative contracts are classified as fair value through profit or loss and are recorded on the statement of financial position at fair value. Transaction costs are recognized in profit or loss when incurred.
The Company has accounted for its forward physical delivery sales contracts, which were entered into and continue to be held for the purpose of receipt or delivery of non-financial items in accordance with its expected purchase, sale or usage requirements as executory contracts. As such, these contracts are not considered to be derivative financial instruments and have not been recorded at fair value on the statement of financial position. Settlements on these physical sales contracts are recognized in oil and natural gas revenue.
Embedded derivatives are separated from the host contract and accounted for separately if the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract and the embedded derivative are not closely related, a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative would meet the definition of a derivative, and the combined instrument is not measured at fair value through earnings. Changes in the fair value of separable embedded derivatives are recognized immediately in earnings.
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