(ii) Impairment of petroleum and natural gas assets:
Judgements are required to assess when impairment indicators exist and impairment testing is required. For the purposes of determining whether impairment of petroleum and natural gas assets has occurred, and the extent of any impairment or its reversal, the key assumptions the Company uses in estimating future cash flows are forecast petroleum and natural gas prices, expected production volumes and anticipated recoverable quantities of proved and probable reserves. These assumptions are subject to change as new information becomes available. Changes in economic conditions can also affect the rate used to discount future cash flow estimates. Changes in the aforementioned assumptions could affect the carrying amounts of assets. Impairment charges and reversals are recognized in profit or loss.
(iii) Deferred taxes:
Deferred tax assets (if any) are recognized only to the extent it is considered probable that those assets will be recoverable. This involves an assessment of when those deferred tax assets are likely to reverse and a judgment as to whether or not there will be sufficient taxable profits available to offset the tax assets when they do reverse. This requires assumptions regarding future profitability and is therefore inherently uncertain. To the extent assumptions regarding future profitability change, there can be an increase or decrease in the amounts recognized in respect of deferred tax assets as well as the amounts recognized in profit or loss in the period in which the change occurs.
Key sources of estimation uncertainty:
The following are the key assumptions concerning the sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period, that have a significant risk of causing adjustments to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities.
Estimation of reported recoverable quantities of proved and probable reserves include judgmental assumptions regarding production profile, commodity prices, exchange rates, remediation costs, timing and amount of future development costs, and production, transportation and marketing costs for future cash flows. It also requires interpretation of geological and geophysical models in anticipated recoveries. The economical, geological and technical factors used to estimate reserves may change from period to period. Changes in reported reserves can impact the carrying values of the Company's petroleum and natural gas properties and equipment, the calculation of depletion and depreciation, the provision for decommissioning obligations, and the recognition of deferred tax assets due to changes in expected future cash flows. The recoverable quantities of reserves and estimated cash flows from the Company's petroleum and natural gas interests are independently evaluated by reserve engineers at least annually.
The Company's petroleum and natural gas reserves represent the estimated quantities of petroleum, natural gas and natural gas liquids which geological, geophysical and engineering data demonstrate with a specified degree of certainty to be economically recoverable in future years from known reservoirs and which are considered commercially producible. Such reserves may be considered commercially producible if management has the intention of developing and producing them and such intention is based upon (i) a reasonable assessment of the future economics of such production; (ii) a reasonable expectation that there is a market for all or substantially all the expected petroleum and natural gas production; and (iii) evidence that the necessary production, transmission and transportation facilities are available or can be made available. Reserves may only be considered proven and probable if producibility is supported by either production or conclusive formation tests. The Company's petroleum and gas reserves are determined pursuant to National Instrument 51-101, Standard of Disclosures for Oil and Gas Activities.
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