The Company defines EBITDA as net income (loss) attributable to EnergySolutions plus interest expense (including the effects of interest rate derivative agreements), income taxes, depreciation, impairment charges and amortization. The Company defines Adjusted EBITDA as EBITDA plus non-cash equity compensation expense and, non-cash accretion expense, plus or minus nuclear decommissioning trust fund gains or losses net of management fees. Beginning in 2011, we have included the changes in ARO cost estimates for the Zion Project as an adjustment to EBITDA to remove certain effects of ARO accounting from this measure. We have also included the corresponding Zion Project ARO cost estimate changes for 2010 for presentation purposes. The Company uses EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA as key indicators of its operating performance and for planning and forecasting future business operations. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA, as presented in this release, are supplemental measures of the Company's performance that are not required by, or presented in accordance with, generally accepted accounting principles in the United States ("GAAP"). They are not measures of the Company's financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered as alternatives to net income or any other performance measures derived in accordance with GAAP or as alternatives to cash flow from operating activities as measures of the Company's liquidity.
The Company's measurement of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies. The Company has included information concerning EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA in this release because they are used by management to measure operating performance and because the Company believes that such information is often used by certain investors as measures of a company's historical performance and for modeling.
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA have limitations as analytical tools, and investors should not consider them in isolation, or as a substitute for analysis of the Company's operating results or cash flows as reported under GAAP. Some of these limitations are:
•They do not reflect the Company's cash flows, cash expenditures, or future requirements for capital expenditures or contractual commitments; •They do not reflect changes in, or cash requirements for, the Company's working capital needs; •They do not reflect the significant interest expense or the cash requirements necessary to service interest or principal payments on the Company's debt; •Although depreciation is a non-cash charge, the assets being depreciated will often have to be replaced in the future, and EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA do not reflect any cash requirements for such replacements; •They are not adjusted for all non-cash income or expense items that are reflected in the Company's statements of cash flows; and •Other companies in the Company's industry may calculate these measures differently than the Company does, limiting their usefulness as comparative measures.
Because of these limitations, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as measures of discretionary cash available to the Company to invest in the growth of its business. The Company compensates for these limitations by relying primarily on its GAAP results and using EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA only for supplemental purposes.
The Company defines Adjusted Gross Profit as gross profit plus accretion expense. The Company defines Adjusted Income from Operations as Adjusted Gross Profit less operating expenses. The Company uses Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted Income from Operations as indicators of its operating performance and for planning and forecasting future business operations. Adjusted Gross Profit and Adjusted Income from Operations, as presented in this release, are supplemental measures of the Company's performance that are not required by, or presented in accordance with, GAAP. They are not measures of the Company's financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered as alternatives to gross profit or any other performance measures derived in accordance with GAAP.
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