(iii) Decommissioning obligations. The total decommissioning obligation is estimated based on the Company's net ownership interest in all wells and facilities, estimated costs to reclaim and abandon these wells and facilities and the estimated timing of the costs to be incurred in future years, based on current legal and constructive requirements and technology. The estimated obligations and actual costs may change significantly due to changes in regulations, technology, timing of the expenditure and the discount rates used to determine the net present value of the obligations. See note 10.
(iv) Deferred taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted or substantively enacted tax rates at the reporting date in effect for the period in which the temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized as part of the provision for income taxes in the period that includes the enactment date. The recognition of deferred tax assets is based on the assumption that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences can be utilized.
(v) Allowance for doubtful accounts. The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts to provide for receivables which may ultimately be uncollectible. The allowance is determined in light of a number of factors including company specific conditions, economic events and the Company's historical loss experience. The allowance is assessed quarterly by a detailed formal review of accounts receivable balances. See note 19(b).
(vi) Share-based compensation. The Company uses the Black-Scholes option pricing model in determining share-based compensation expense, which requires a number of assumptions to be made, including the risk-free interest rate, expected option life, forfeiture rate, and expected share price volatility. Consequently, the actual share-based compensation expense may vary from the amount estimated. See note 12.
Estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the year in which the estimates are revised and in any future years affected.
5. DETERMINATION OF FAIR VALUE
A number of the Company's accounting policies and disclosures require the determination of fair value, for both financial and non-financial assets and liabilities. Fair values have been determined for measurement and/or disclosure purposes based on the following methods. When applicable, further information about the assumptions made in determining fair values is disclosed in the notes specific to that asset or liability.
(a) Property, plant and equipment. Property, plant and equipment are recognized at fair value in a business combination. The fair value of property, plant and equipment is the estimated amount for which property, plant and equipment could be exchanged on the acquisition date between a willing buyer and a willing seller in an arm's length transaction after proper marketing wherein the parties had each acted knowledgeably, prudently and without compulsion.
The Company estimated the FVLCTS to determine the recoverable amounts of the Company's CGUs for impairment testing. The FVLCTS of each CGU was estimated based on consideration of the following:
(i) net present value of proved plus probable reserves using a pre-tax discount rate of 10% as determined by independent qualified reserves evaluators;
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