Other financial results generated a loss of $28.1 million in 2012, compared to a gain of $11.3 million during 2011. These results largely reflect gains and losses on net foreign exchange transactions ($10.9 million loss in 2012 compared with $65.4 million gain in 2011) and the fair value of derivative instruments ($3.2 million loss in 2012 compared with $49.3 million loss in 2011) and are to a large extent offset by changes to our net equity position. These results are mainly attributable to variations in the exchange rates between our subsidiaries' functional currencies (other than the U.S. dollar) and the U.S. dollar in accordance with IFRS.
Equity in earnings of associated companies generated a loss of $63.5 million in 2012, compared to a gain of $61.5 million in 2011. During 2012 we recorded impairment charges amounting to $73.7 million on our investment in Usiminas, reflecting changes to the operating environment in Brazil, particularly in relation with Usiminas mining projects. In addition, the Usiminas impairment had an indirect negative impact on our investment in Ternium.
Income tax charges totalled $541.6 million in 2012, equivalent to 23.5% of income before equity in earnings of associated companies and income tax, compared to $475.4 million in 2011, equivalent to 25.9% of income before equity in earnings of associated companies and income tax. During 2012, the tax rate benefited from a more favorable mix of companies.
Net income increased to $1,701.4 million in 2012, compared to $1,420.7 million in 2011, mainly reflecting higher operating results, partially offset by lower results from associated companies.
Income attributable to owners of the parent was $1,699.1 million, or $1.44 per share ($2.88 per ADS), in 2012, compared to $1,331.2 million, or $1.13 per share ($2.26 per ADS) in 2011.
Income attributable to non-controlling interest was $2.4 million in 2012, compared to $89.6 million in 2011, as during the second quarter of 2012, we acquired all the non-controlling interests in Confab.
Cash Flow and Liquidity of 2012
Net cash provided by operations during 2012 was $1,860.4 million, compared to $1,283.3 million during 2011. Working capital increased by $303.0 million during 2012, compared with an increase of $649.6 million in 2011, reflecting more stable values of inventories and trade receivables.
Capital expenditures declined to $789.7 million in 2012, from $862.7 million in 2011, as we have already completed most of the investments at our small diameter rolling mill at our Veracruz facility in Mexico.
Dividends paid during 2012 amounted to $448.6 million, compared to $401.4 million in 2011.
During 2012, total financial debt increased by $813.3 million to $1,744.2 million at December 31, 2012 from $930.9 million at December 31, 2011. Liquidity (cash and cash equivalents and other current investments) increased by $218.3 million to $1,472.9 million at December 31, 2012 from $1,254.5 million at December 31, 2011. Net debt during 2012 increased by $595.0 million to $271.3 million at December 31, 2012, from a net cash position of $323.6 million at December 31, 2011.
Some of the statements contained in this press release are "forward-looking statements". Forward-looking statements are based on management's current views and assumptions and involve known and unknown risks that could cause actual results, performance or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied by those statements. These risks include but are not limited to risks arising from uncertainties as to future oil and gas prices and their impact on investment programs by oil and gas companies.
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