Foreign Currency Translation
The functional and presentation currency of the Company is the Canadian dollar. Each of the Company's subsidiaries determines its functional currency and items included in the financial statements of each subsidiary are measured using that functional currency.
Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded at the functional currency rate prevailing at the date of the transaction or at the average rate for the period when this is a reasonable approximation. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are retranslated at the functional currency spot rate of exchange as at the reporting date. All differences are taken directly to profit or loss. Non-monetary items that are measured in terms of historical cost in a foreign currency are translated using the exchange rates as at the dates of the initial transactions.
The assets and liabilities of foreign operations (having a functional currency other than the Canadian dollar) are translated into Canadian dollars at the rate of exchange prevailing at the statement of financial position date and the statements of earnings are translated at the average exchange rate for the period. The exchange differences arising on translation are recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income in shareholders' equity. On disposal of a foreign operation, the deferred cumulative amount recognized in equity is recognized in the income statement.
Share-based Payment Transactions
The Company operates both equity-settled and cash-settled share-based compensation plans under which the Company receives services from employees, including senior executives and directors, as consideration for equity instruments of the Company or cash payments.
For equity-settled plans, expense is based on the fair value of the awards granted determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model and the best estimate of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. For awards with graded vesting, each tranche is considered to be a separate grant based on its respective vesting period. The fair value of each tranche is determined separately on the date of grant and is recognized as stock-based compensation expense, net of forfeiture estimate, over the term of its respective vesting period.
For cash-settled plans, the expense is determined based on the fair value of the liability incurred at each award date and at each subsequent statement of financial position date until the award is settled. The fair value of the liability is measured by applying quoted market prices. Changes in fair value are recognized in the income statement in selling and administrative expenses.
Employee Future Benefits
For defined contribution plans, the pension expense recorded in the income statement is the amount of the contributions the Company is required to pay in accordance with the terms of the plans.
For defined benefit plans, the pension expense is determined separately for each plan using the following policies:
-- The cost of pensions earned by employees is actuarially determined using the projected unit credit method pro-rated on length of service and management's best estimate assumptions to value its pensions using a measurement date of December 31;-- For the purpose of calculating the expected return on plan assets, those assets are valued at fair value;-- Past service costs from plan amendments are recognized immediately in net earnings to the extent that the benefits have vested; otherwise, they are amortized on a straight-line basis over the vesting period;-- Actuarial gains and losses arising from experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognized in retained earnings and included in the statement of comprehensive income in the period in which they occur.