Impairment of Non-financial Assets
Impairment exists when the carrying value of an asset or cash generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount, which is the higher of its fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. The fair value less costs to sell calculation is based on available data from binding sales transactions in an arm's length transaction of similar assets or observable market prices less incremental costs for disposing of the asset. The value in use calculation is based on a discounted cash flow model. The cash flows are derived from the budget for the next five years and do not include restructuring activities that the Company is not yet committed to or significant future investments that will enhance the asset's performance of the cash generating unit being tested. The recoverable amount is most sensitive to the discount rate used for the discounted cash flow model as well as the expected future cash inflows and the growth rate used for extrapolation purposes.
The Company generates revenue from the assembly and manufacture of equipment using the percentage-of-completion method. This method requires management to make a number of estimates and assumptions surrounding: the expected profitability of the contract; the estimated degree of completion based on cost progression; and other detailed factors. Although these factors are routinely reviewed as part of the project management process, changes in these estimates or assumptions could lead to changes in the revenues recognized in a given period.
The Company also generates revenue from long-term maintenance and repair contracts whereby it is obligated to maintain equipment for its customers. The contracts are typically fixed price on either machine hours or cost per hour, with provisions for inflationary and exchange adjustments. Revenue is recognized using the percentage-of-completion method based on work completed. This method requires management to make a number of estimates and assumptions surrounding: machine usage; machine performance; future parts and labour pricing; manufacturers' warranty coverage; and other detailed factors. These factors are routinely reviewed as part of the contract management process; however changes in these estimates or assumptions could lead to changes in the revenues and cost of goods sold recognized in a given period.
Management is required to make an assessment of the net realizable value of inventory at each reporting period. Management incorporates estimates and judgments that take into account current market prices, current economic trends and past experiences in the measurement of net realizable value.
Employee Future Benefits Expense
The net obligations associated with the defined benefit pension plans are actuarially valued using: the projected unit credit method; management's best estimates for long-term expected rate of return on assets; salary escalation and life expectancy; and a current market discount rate. All assumptions are reviewed at each reporting date.
Estimating the fair value for share-based payment transactions requires determining the most appropriate inputs to the valuation model including: the expected life of the share option; volatility; and dividend yield.
FUTURE ACCOUNTING STANDARDS
A number of new standards, amendments to standards and interpretations have been issued but are not yet effective for the financial year ending December 31, 2012, and accordingly, have not been applied in preparing these consolidated financial statements.
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