Use of Non-GAAP (Adjusted) Financial Measures
The information furnished in this release includes non-GAAP financial measures that differ from measures calculated in accordance with GAAP, including adjusted EBITDA, Non-GAAP gross margin and Non-GAAP operating income.
EBITDA is defined as net income (loss) before income taxes, interest expense, interest income and depreciation and amortization. Adjusted EBITDA is EBITDA further adjusted to exclude certain charges and other adjustments permitted in calculating covenant compliance under our debt agreements as further described in our SEC filings.
We believe that including supplementary information concerning adjusted EBITDA is appropriate to provide additional information to investors to demonstrate compliance with our debt agreements and because it serves as a basis for determining management compensation. In addition, we believe adjusted EBITDA provides more comparability between our historical results and results that reflect purchase accounting and our current capital structure. Accordingly, adjusted EBITDA measures our financial performance based on operational factors that management can impact in the short-term, namely the company's pricing strategies, volume, costs and expenses of the organization.
Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool. Adjusted EBITDA does not represent net income (loss) or cash flow from operations as those terms are defined by GAAP and does not necessarily indicate whether cash flows will be sufficient to fund cash needs. While adjusted EBITDA and similar measures are frequently used as measures of operations and the ability to meet debt service requirements, these terms are not necessarily comparable to other similarly titled captions of other companies due to the potential inconsistencies in the method of calculation. Adjusted EBITDA does not reflect the impact of earnings or charges resulting from matters that we consider not to be indicative of our ongoing operations. In particular, based on our debt agreements the definition of adjusted EBITDA allows us to add back certain non-cash charges that are deducted in calculating net income (loss). Our debt agreements also allow us to add back restructuring charges, certain fees payable to our private equity sponsors and other specific cash costs and expenses as defined in the agreements and that portion of our pension costs, other post-employment benefits costs, and non-retirement post-employment benefits costs representing the amortization of pension service costs and actuarial gain or loss associated with these employment benefits. However, these are expenses that may recur, may vary and are difficult to predict. Further, our debt agreements require that adjusted EBITDA be calculated for the most recent four fiscal quarters. As a result, the measure can be disproportionately affected by a particularly strong or weak quarter. Further, it may not be comparable to the measure for any subsequent four-quarter period or any complete fiscal year.
Non-GAAP gross margin excludes the amortization of technology intangible assets, impairment of long lived assets, transition services agreement costs incurred in connection with the acquisition of Nortel's enterprise solutions business, share based compensation and purchase accounting adjustments. We have included Non-GAAP gross margin because we believe it provides additional useful information to investors regarding our operations by excluding those charges that management does not believe are reflective of the company's ongoing operating results when assessing the performance of the business.
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