The patent's assignee is
News editors obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "This application relates generally to machine-readable symbols. More specifically, this application relates to methods and systems for fabricating, acquiring, and processing machine-readable symbols.
"Since their origins in the late 1940's, barcodes and other types of machine-readable symbols have become ubiquitous. They are used in a wide range of applications to identify items in a way that may be understood by a variety of devices. Perhaps the most common example is the use of barcodes to identify retail products with the Global Trade Item Numbers ('GTIN') or Universal Product Code ('UPC') symbologies. These systems are examples where machine-readable symbols are used to identify generally fungible products for sale, with information encoded in the barcode to identify characteristics of products being sold, including such information as an item number, a weight of the product, a price for the product, and the like. Other barcode symbology uses that identify classes of products are implemented in any number of inventory-based systems, such as in factories that use barcodes to track component supplies and to automate reordering when supplies of certain components are near depletion.
"Other types of systems assign unique barcodes to items rather than assigning barcodes to groups of items. One of the more important of these is the GS1 supply-chain system, which implements a series of standards that are designed to improve supply-chain management. In combination with other standards, barcode standards are promulgated in this system to allow unique identification of products in manufacturing and other contexts.
"Barcodes are also used for unique identification of living beings, notably in biological research in which animals are tagged with barcodes to track individual the behavior of individual animals, particularly in large-population environments where individual identification of the animals is otherwise difficult (such as for the tracking of behavior of bees in hives). Barcodes have also been used for the identification of human beings, such as in medical environments where wristbands having symbols that encode patient information are deployed.
"While many deployments of machine-readable symbols are effected by attaching labels to items with printed barcodes, there are other implementations in which the symbols are incorporated directly onto the part being marked. This may be accomplished by such techniques as laser etching, chemical etching, dot peening, casting, machining, and other operations, and is particularly common in supply-chain applications.
"The very ubiquity of machine-readable symbols means that there are many different circumstances in which the symbols may be difficult to read reliably: this may be because, among other reasons, the symbol itself is of poor quality; because the shape, color, or configuration of an object on which it is instantiated presents imaging challenges; or the environment in which it is to be read presents challenges. While a number of processing techniques have been developed to address such difficulties, many of these remain ineffective under a variety of conditions so that a need remains in the art for improved acquisition techniques.
"In addition, many applications for machine-readable symbols introduce the risk of a variety of types of fraud. Software is widely available, both on the Internet and through other commercial avenues, that allow individuals to generate barcode symbologies that may be improperly affixed to items. Fraud can also be committed by copying barcodes and inappropriately attaching them to items so that the items are deliberately misidentified. Such copying is, moreover, not limited to the copying of barcodes to be attached to items but can also be committed with direct-part marks that are incorporated directly on items by examining and reproducing the marks improperly. Such fraud can not only have significant financial consequences, but can also have the effect of interfering with supply-chain monitoring and scenarios can even be envisaged in which such copying is used to commit batteries and other physical crimes against individuals through the deliberate mislabeling of medications, medical parts, and even the patient himself. There is accordingly also a need in the art to enhance the security of machine-readable symbols."
As a supplement to the background information on this patent application, VerticalNews correspondents also obtained the inventor's summary information for this patent application: "Embodiments of the invention are directed to a variety of forms of machine-readable symbols, to methods and systems of constructing machine-readable symbols, to methods and systems of acquiring machine-readable symbols, and to methods and systems of decoding machine-readable symbols.
"In a first set of embodiments, methods and systems are provided for acquiring an image of a machine-readable symbol. The machine-readable symbol is illuminated with a plurality of illumination sources disposed relative to the machine-readable symbol to define a plurality of distinct illumination geometries. For each illumination geometry, a respective raw image of the machine-readable symbol is obtained. At least one of the respective raw images includes a dark region. Information from the respective raw images is combined to generate a single image of the machine-readable symbol.
"In some of these embodiments, the machine-readable symbol comprises a printed barcode, but may take other forms in alternative embodiments.
"There are various ways in which information from the respective raw images may be combined. For example, a nonminimum pixel may be selected from each of the respective raw images. A bilateral filter may be applied to at least one of the respective raw images. A pixel intensity may be averaged across the respective raw images. Information from the respective raw images may be uniformly or nonuniformly weighted in different embodiments, such as by applying a nonuniform weighting in accordance with a determination of a quality for each of the respective raw images. An intrinsic characteristic of on object on which the machine-readable symbol is instantiated may be estimated, such as by processing the raw images with a photometric stereo technique to derive a measure of surface topography and reflectance of the object.
"In certain embodiments, the illumination sources define a balanced arrangement in which illumination portions of the respective raw images vary between illumination conditions in a complementary fashion.
"In a second set of embodiments, methods and systems are also provided of acquiring an image of a machine-readable symbol. The machine-readable symbol is illuminated with a plurality of illumination sources having different illumination spectra. An image of the illumination machine-readable symbol is collected, and chromatic components of the collected image are separated.
"The machine-readable symbol may comprise a printed barcode in some embodiments, but may take other forms also.
"The plurality of illumination sources may be disposed relative to the machine-readable symbol to provide a plurality of distinct illumination geometries, such as by having at least two of the illumination sources disposed at different azimuthal and/or elevation angles relative to the machine-readable symbol.
"In some instances, illumination from at least one of the illumination sources is polarized so that the method further comprises separating polarization components of the collected image.
"The illumination sources may also take different forms in different embodiments. In one embodiment, at least one of the illumination sources provides diffuse illumination, while in another embodiment, at least one of the illumination sources provides substantially directional illumination. The illumination sources might also provide a plurality of illumination wavelengths, but with different illumination sources providing the illumination wavelengths at different relative intensities. In another embodiment, each illumination source is instead substantially monochromatic.
"A third set of embodiments provides a handheld device and method of acquiring an image of a machine-readable symbol with the handheld device. A plurality of raw images of the machine-readable symbol taken with the handheld device are received. The plurality of raw images are registered, and information from the registered images is combined to generate a single image of the machine-readable symbol.
"In some of these embodiments, the machine-readable symbol comprises a printed barcode, while in others it comprises a direct-part mark. The various types of combinations of information from the images may be performed in various embodiments. The handheld device may comprise a mobile telephone or a tablet computer, among others.
"A fourth set of embodiments provides a multi-mode machine-readable symbol. A first machine-readable symbol is instantiated on an object at a first location and is readable by a first methodology. A second machine-readable symbol is instantiated on the object at a second location that overlaps the first location and is readable by a second methodology different from the first methodology.
"In some instances, a third machine-readable symbol is instantiated at a third location that overlaps the first and second locations and is readable by a third methodology different from the first and second methodologies.
"In specific embodiments, the second machine-readable symbol comprises a pattern of marks formed in a surface of the object. The first machine-readable symbol may comprise a barcode printed on a surface of the object or on a conformal layer applied over the surface of the object.
"In a fifth set of embodiments, methods and systems are provided for decoding a machine-readable symbol configured as a set of marks form in a surface of an object. A presence or absence of a mark in each cell of an array of cells designates a binary state of the cell. An image of the machine-readable symbol is acquired. Cells of the array are identified from the acquired image. Reference cells of the array are evaluated in accordance with a reference standard for the machine-readable symbol to identify optical characteristics consistent with the presence or absence of a mark in the reference cells. Nonreference cells of the array are classified in accordance with the identified optical characteristics to determine the presence or absence of a mark in the nonreference cells. Classifications of the nonreference cells are compiled into a binary grid, which may then be decoded.
"In some embodiments, the image of the machine-readable symbol may be acquired by illuminating the machine-readable symbol with a plurality of illumination sources having different illuminating spectra, with the reference cells being evaluated and the nonreference cells being classified by separating chromatic components of the acquired image. In some cases, the illumination sources are disposed relative to the machine-readable symbol to provide a plurality of distinct illumination geometries, such as by having different azimuthal or elevation angles. The illumination sources may also provide diffuse or directional illumination, and may be substantially monochromatic.
"The reference cells may be evaluated and the nonreference cells classified by determining a statistical measure of pixel values within the cells, such as a mean or standard deviation of the pixel values.
"In a sixth set of embodiments, a copy-resistant symbol is provided as a machine-readable symbol instantiated on a substrate. The machine-readable symbol represents a combination of substantive and encrypted security information. A decryption of the encrypted security information identifies a security feature of the copy-resistant symbol identifiable through optical imaging of the copy-resistant symbol.
"The substrate or the machine-readable symbol may comprise an optically variable material, and the machine-readable symbol may be printed over the substrate or incorporated within the substrate. The security feature may comprise an identifying mark comprised by the substrate or comprised by the machine-readable symbol. For example, the security feature may comprise an angular relationship of the identifying mark and a reference comprised by the copy-resistant symbol or may comprise a spatial relationship between the identifying mark and a reference comprised by the copy-resistant symbol.
"The encrypted security information may be encrypted according to a symmetric or asymmetric encryption algorithm. In some embodiments, the copy-resistant symbol further comprises a supplementary layer distinct from the substrate and the machine-readable symbol, with the security feature comprising an identifying mark comprised by the supplementary layer.
"Such copy-resistant symbols may be read by optically acquiring the machine-readable symbol from the copy-resistant symbol and decoding it to derive a message. A portion of the message may be decrypted by applying a decryption key, and determining a security feature from the decrypted portion of the message. Physical presence of the security feature on the copy-resistant symbol may then be confirmed.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
"A further understanding of the nature and advantages of the present invention may be realized by reference to the remaining portions of the specification and the drawings, wherein like reference labels are used through the several drawings to refer to similar components. In some instances, reference labels are followed with a hyphenated sublabel; reference to only the primary portion of the label is intended to refer collectively to all reference labels that have the same primary label but different sublabels.
"The patent or application file contains at least one drawing executed in color. Copies of this patent or patent application publication with color drawings will be provided by the Office upon request and payment of the necessary fee.
"FIG. 1 is a schematic illustration of one type of optical reader that may be used in embodiments of the invention for machine reading of symbols;
"FIG. 2 provides a perspective view of an optical reader having three sources of illumination (COLOR);
"FIG. 3 illustrates the use of multiple monochromatic imagers combined with chromatic beam splitters;
"FIG. 4 illustrates the use of nominally monochromatic illuminators in different illumination geometries (COLOR);
"FIG. 5 shows the structure of a typical Bayer color-filter array with overlapping passbands (COLOR);
"FIG. 6A is a schematic illustration of one example of a mobile communications device with the invention may be embodied;
"FIG. 6B is a schematic illustration of an internal structure of a mobile communications device with which the invention may be embodied;
"FIG. 6C is a flow diagram summarizing methods of using a mobile communications device to acquire an image of a machine-readable symbol.
"FIG. 7A shows a barcode imaged by using illumination at eight different azimuthal angles;
"FIG. 7B shows images generated from the images of FIG. 7A after undergoing pixelwise sorting and redisplay;
"FIG. 8 demonstrates the effect of applying balanced acquisition to barcode images;
"FIG. 9 shows estimated illumination profiles for the images of FIG. 7A, generated using a wavelet smoothing function applied to the images in FIG. 7A;
"FIG. 10 shows reflectance images generated from raw images in FIG. 7A and the estimated illumination profiles of FIG. 9;
"FIG. 11 shows log(reflectance) or pseudo-absorbance generated from the images shown in FIG. 10;
"FIG. 12 shows rescaled raw-intensity and pseudo-absorbance images for the upper left images in FIGS. 5 and 11;
"FIG. 13 provides an illustration of components of a dual-mode barcode;
"FIG. 14 shows red, green, and blue color planes from a dot-peened machine-readable symbol;
"FIG. 15 is a color image generated from the three raw color planes shown in FIG. 14;
"FIG. 16 shows a dot-peened machine-readable symbol with cell locations established (COLOR);
"FIG. 17 is a close-up of a portion of FIG. 16 that shows that the manifestation of diffuse (red) illumination and two different direct (blue, green) illumination are all different from each other (COLOR);
"FIG. 18 is an image of a dot-peened machine-readable symbol showing a discrimination of reference cells either containing or not containing a dot peen (COLOR);
"FIG. 19 shows the results of applying a classification method to unknown cells for a dot-peened machine-readable symbol (COLOR);
"FIG. 20 shows red, green, and blue color planes from an industrial barcode;
"FIG. 21 is a color image generated from the three raw color planes shown in FIG. 20;
"FIG. 22 is a close-up of the central portion of the barcode shown in FIG. 21 (COLOR);
"FIG. 23 shows reference cells of the industrial barcode of FIG. 20 used for subsequent classification (COLOR);
"FIG. 24 shows the results of applying a statistical classification technique to the industrial barcode of FIG. 20 (COLOR);
"FIG. 25 is a flow diagram that summarizes methods of the invention for reading copy-resistant machine-readable symbols in accordance with some embodiments;
"FIG. 26 provides a schematic illustration of how information may be encoded within a machine-readable symbol taking the form of a two-dimensional barcode;
"FIG. 27A provides an example of a holographic substrate over which a nonholographic machine-readable symbol may be printed as illustrated in FIG. 27B (COLOR);
"FIG. 28 provides an example of a symbology that uses a holographic machine-readable symbol printed over a nonholographic substrate (COLOR); and
"FIGS. 29A and 29B provide examples of spatial relationships between elements of a copy-resistant machine-readable symbol that may be used as features according to embodiments of the invention (COLOR)."
For additional information on this patent application, see:
Keywords for this news article include: Legal Issues,
Our reports deliver fact-based news of research and discoveries from around the world. Copyright 2014, NewsRx LLC
Most Popular Stories
- Toxic Algae Threatens Florida Fishing, Tourism
- Hispanic Groups Lead Voter Registration Drive
- Eva Mendes Gives Birth to a Baby Girl
- Fed Signals It Will Keep Key Rate at Record Low
- Plus-Size iPhones Live Up to The Hype
- FedEx Adding 50,000 Holiday Jobs
- Stocks Rise Before Fed Statement
- Occupy Wall Street Buys Up Student Debt
- Cool Features on Today's New iOS 8
- Kohl's Hiring 67,000 for the Holidays