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Patent Issued for Methods of Synthesizing Carbon-Magnetite Nanocomposites from Renewable Resource Materials and Application of Same

August 13, 2014



By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Journal of Engineering -- A patent by the inventor Viswanathan, Tito (Little Rock, AR), filed on March 22, 2011, was published online on July 29, 2014, according to news reporting originating from Alexandria, Virginia, by VerticalNews correspondents.

Patent number 8790615 is assigned to Board of Trustees of the University of Arkansas (Little Rock, AR).

The following quote was obtained by the news editors from the background information supplied by the inventors: "The removal of arsenic (As), a heavy metal ion present in water supplies world-wide, is important for several reasons. Studies have indicated that the deleterious effects of exposure to even small doses of arsenic can be cumulative and may lead to cancer, such as skin cancer, lung cancer, bladder cancer, and kidney cancer, as well as immunological and neurological problems. Several countries in the world, for example, Bangladesh, India, Mexico and the United States to name a few, have naturally-occurring high As levels in drinking water. The seriousness of the problem is exemplified by the new worldwide requirement of As level at no more than 10 mg/L for drinking water (down from 50 mg/L prior to 1993) by the World Health Organization (WHO) [1] and the adoption of the same requirement by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (40 CFR Part 141) in January of 2006.

"Work done by researchers including those in the United States have shown that magnetite (Fe.sub.3O.sub.4) particles are very effective in reducing As concentration [as As (III) in Arsenite and as As (V) in Arsenate] from contaminated water. A detailed study of the adsorption of As to magnetite nanoparticles has been performed in terms of particle concentration, pH, ionic strength and temperature. The results suggest that As adsorption is not significantly affected by pH, ionic strength, and temperature ranges [2]. It has also been determined that magnetite particles in the nanodimension (

"Therefore, a heretofore unaddressed need exists in the art to address the aforementioned deficiencies and inadequacies."

In addition to the background information obtained for this patent, VerticalNews journalists also obtained the inventor's summary information for this patent: "In one aspect, the present invention provides a method of synthesizing carbon-magnetite nanocomposites. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of (a) dissolving a first amount of an alkali salt of lignosulfonate in water to form a first solution, (b) heating the first solution to a first temperature, adding a second amount of iron sulfate (FeSO.sub.4) to the first solution to form a second solution, (d) heating the second solution at a second temperature for a first duration of time effective to form a third solution of iron lignosulfonate, (e) adding a third amount of 1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the third solution of iron lignosulfonate to form a fourth solution with a first pH level, (f) heating the fourth solution at a third temperature for a second duration of time to form a first sample, and (g) subjecting the first sample to a microwave radiation for a third duration of time effective to form a second sample containing a plurality of carbon-magnetite nanocomposites.

"In one embodiment, the alkali salt of lignosulfonate comprises calcium lignosulfonate or sodium lignosulfonate.

"In one embodiment, the first temperature is about 90.degree. C.

"In one embodiment, the second temperature is about 90.degree. C.

"In one embodiment, the first duration of time is about one hour.

"In one embodiment, the first pH level is about 9.0 or about 7.0.

"In one embodiment, the third temperature is about 85.degree. C.

"In one embodiment, the method further includes the steps of, prior to the step of heating the fourth solution, (a) cooling the fourth solution to a fourth temperature, and (b) after the cooling step, filtering the fourth solution.

"In one embodiment, the fourth temperature is lower than the second temperature and the third temperature.

"In one embodiment, the method further includes the step of, prior to the subjecting step, drying the first sample in a vacuum oven at room temperature for a fourth duration of time.

"In one embodiment, the method further includes the steps of, prior to the subjecting step (a) placing the first sample in a first container, and (b) placing a fourth amount of graphite or carbon black in the first container.

"In one embodiment, the subjecting step includes the step of subjecting the first sample placed in the first container to the microwave radiation, the first container being positioned such that the fourth amount of graphite or carbon black is also subjected to the microwave radiation.

"In one embodiment, the method further includes the steps of, prior to the subjecting step, (a) placing the first sample in a first container, and (b) placing the first container with the first sample in a second container that contains graphite or carbon black.

"In another embodiment, the subjecting step includes the step of subjecting the first sample placed in the first container to the microwave radiation, the first container being placed in the second container, which is positioned such that at least part of the graphite or carbon black contained in the second container is also subjected to the microwave radiation.

"In yet another embodiment, the method further includes the steps of, after the subjecting step, (a) mixing the second sample with water to obtain a fifth solution, and (b) heating the fifth solution to a temperature corresponding to the boiling point of the fifth solution for a fifth duration of time.

"In a further embodiment, the second sample also contains iron carbide.

"In another aspect, the present invention provides an article of manufacture made by the method set forth immediately above.

"In another aspect, the present invention provides a method of synthesizing carbon-magnetite nanocomposites. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of (a) dissolving a first amount of tannin and a second amount of ferric chloride (FeCl.sub.3) in water to form a first solution, the water having a temperature higher than room temperature, (b) adding a third amount of 1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the first solution to form a second solution with a first pH level, centrifuging the second solution to form a first sample, and (d) subjecting the first sample to a microwave radiation for a first duration of time effective to form a second sample containing a plurality of carbon-magnetite nanocomposites.

"In one embodiment, the ratio of the first amount of tannin and the second amount of ferric chloride (FeCl.sub.3) is such that about one mole equivalent of ferric chloride (FeCl.sub.3) is added to about 288 g of tannin.

"In another embodiment, the first pH level is about 9.0.

"In yet another embodiment, the method further includes the step of, prior to the centrifuging step, cooling the second solution to room temperature.

"In a further embodiment, the method further includes the step of, prior to the subjecting step, drying the first sample.

"In another aspect, the present invention provides an article of manufacture made by the method set forth immediately above.

"In another aspect, the present invention provides a method of synthesizing carbon-transition-metal-oxide nanocomposites. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of (a) dissolving a first amount of an alkali salt of lignosulfonate in water to form a first solution, (b) heating the first solution to a first temperature, adding a second amount of transition-metal sulfate to the first solution to form a second solution, (d) heating the second solution at a second temperature for a first duration of time effective to form a third solution of transition-metal lignosulfonate, (e) adding a third amount of 1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the third solution of transition-metal lignosulfonate to form a fourth solution with a first pH level, (f) heating the fourth solution at a third temperature for a second duration of time to form a first sample, and (g) subjecting the first sample to a microwave radiation for a third duration of time effective to form a second sample containing a plurality of carbon-transition-metal-oxide nanocomposites.

"In another embodiment, the transition-metal comprises one of Fe, Co, and Ni.

"In yet another embodiment, the alkali salt of lignosulfonate comprises calcium lignosulfonate or sodium lignosulfonate.

"In yet another aspect, the present invention provides an article of manufacture made by the method set forth immediately above.

"In a further aspect, the present invention provides a method of removing arsenic from contaminated water. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of (a) adding an amount of carbon-magnetite nanocomposites to contaminated water that contains arsenic ions to form a solution, (b) subjecting the solution to an ultrasound wave for a duration of time effective to allow a plurality of arsenic ions to be adsorbed on at least some of the carbon-magnetite nanocomposites, and removing the carbon-magnetite nanocomposites from the solution.

"In another embodiment, the removing step includes the step of filtering the solution to remove the carbon-magnetite nanocomposites from the solution.

"In yet another embodiment, the removing step includes the step of removing the carbon-magnetite nanocomposites from the solution by applying a magnetic field.

"These and other aspects of the present invention will become apparent from the following description of the preferred embodiment taken in conjunction with the following drawings and their captions, although variations and modifications therein may be affected without departing from the spirit and scope of the novel concepts of the disclosure."

URL and more information on this patent, see: Viswanathan, Tito. Methods of Synthesizing Carbon-Magnetite Nanocomposites from Renewable Resource Materials and Application of Same. U.S. Patent Number 8790615, filed March 22, 2011, and published online on July 29, 2014. Patent URL: http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=8790615.PN.&OS=PN/8790615RS=PN/8790615

Keywords for this news article include: Carbon, Arsenic, Graphite, Minerals, Chemicals, Chemistry, Nanoparticle, Nanotechnology, Sodium Hydroxide, Emerging Technologies, Board of Trustees of the University of Arkansas.

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Source: Journal of Engineering


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