That's the wage gap for Hoosiers, as calculated by the
Such disparities in pay, education, health care and leadership opportunities, among other metrics, led personal finance website WalletHub to rank
Women's role in the workforce has changed dramatically in the 94 years since the 19th Amendment was adopted into the Constitution, which is celebrated on
Wittenburg remembers growing up in a time when "women weren't allowed to do certain jobs just because they were women."
"Fortunately, that has changed, but not completely," she said.
The median annual income of a woman in
Because the WalletHub report deals in averages, the statistics can appear to show that women are always paid less for the same work as their male counterparts. In reality, factors such as the role women take in providing child care can influence the number of hours they work and their overall years of job experience, affecting future job promotion opportunities.
"These differences in roles have big impacts on work hours, numbers of years you work and the professions you choose to go into," Dau-Schmidt said.
Dau-Schmidt's paper "The Kid Factor," published in The American Lawyer in 2008, detailed research on how men and women lawyers commit to child care. Dau-Schmidt and his co-authors found that in families with children, women are much more likely to interrupt their careers and work fewer hours once they return to work, while men with kids actually increase the number of hours they work.
"Rightly or wrongly, once kids arrive, the women work many less hours while the men work many more hours, on average," Dau-Schmidt said. "It is thus not too surprising that the male lawyers enjoy a higher average income than the women lawyers and are more likely to become a managing partner."
However, whereas men often choose careers based on income, women prioritize flexibility in work hours and job satisfaction. Dau-Schmidt found that "the women who interrupt their careers to do child care and then work less hours afterward are actually the happiest of all these groups, both with their careers and with work/family balance."
"Long hours of paid work tend to result in compensation, but they also tend to make people less happy," he said.
Closing the gap in which parent provides primary child care could be a gender equalizer among working families, Dau-Schmidt said. The lack of time off provided to mothers for child care is an example of workforce discrimination, according to Wittenburg, especially in cases of families headed by single mothers. Female headed households with no husband present and children younger than 18 make up 4.7 percent of
"If they don't have a spouse, if they are the sole provider and not making the income they need to, that hurts the whole family," Wittenburg said. "If our country wants or claims to be family-oriented, the corporations have to do something about making it easier to actually rear children and give them a good footing when they're young."
"If they don't get the education that they need, they're always going to be going backwards and not making headway," Wittenburg said.
Release of the WalletHub study on women's equality coincided with Women's Equality Day on Tuesday, which marks the anniversary of former Secretary of State
"I think it's an important reminder that women like
But earning the right to vote by no means ended the women's equality movement. Women across the country still fight for access to health care, control of their reproductive rights and aim to end discrimination in the workplace,
"One of the problems is people in some communities don't believe that women can do the job, even though we're really, I guess, a majority of the population," she said. "It's still hard to be taken seriously in a lot of respects."
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