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Patent Application Titled "Cost-Effective Data Layout Optimization over Heterogeneous Storage Classes" Published Online

August 19, 2014

By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Information Technology Newsweekly -- According to news reporting originating from Washington, D.C., by VerticalNews journalists, a patent application by the inventors Tatemura, Junichi (Cupertino, CA); Hacigumus, Vahit Hakan (San Jose, CA), filed on January 29, 2014, was made available online on August 7, 2014.

The assignee for this patent application is NEC Laboratories America, Inc.

Reporters obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "The move towards cloud computing for data intensive computing presents unique opportunities and challenges for data center operators. One key challenge that data center operators face is the provisioning of resources in the data center for specific customer workloads. The I/O storage subsystems have gotten highly complicated over the last few years primarily due to the disruptive introduction of flash solid state drives (SSDs). It is common for data centers to have server systems/blades that have a rich I/O subsystem with a mixture of traditional hard disk drives (HDDs), typically in some RAID configuration, and SSDs. Since the price and performance characteristics vary widely across specific I/O devices (for HDDs and SSDs), it is not uncommon to find server configurations that have a rich I/O subsystem. For example a server box may have a RAID HDD subsystem, a high-end (fast but expensive) SSD, and a low-end (slow but inexpensive) SSD.

"Data center operators have to make the decision to purchase the server boxes up-front and then provision these resources on (every changing) workload. Further, multiple different workloads may share resources on the same physical box and provisioning the workload requires taking into account physical constraints such as capacity constraints associated with the physical resources. The data center operator needs to determine resources to provision for specific workloads given the rich I/O ecosystem.

"The capital cost of running database workloads has been a very important and practical concern for service providers. The Input/Output (I/O) data storage subsystems are often the most expensive components of high-end data processing systems. Whereas most research on database systems has focused on higher performance, the hidden total cost of ownership (TCO), including energy and maintenance costs, has been relatively ignored. For example, an enterprise Solid State Drive (SSD) can improve random read performance around 150.times. than a general Hard Disk Drive (HDD). However, the amortized TCO of the enterprise SSD can be 300.times. higher than HDD. Therefore, it is important to consider how to properly use heterogeneous storages for the database system to achieve both high performance and cost effectiveness.

"With the advent of the SSD and its disparity in terms of IO performance and amortized TCO compared with those of HDD, it is more important to find a data layout that achieves the minimal cost of running the given workload. In practice, the workloads are usually associated with SLAs to make sure the quality of the services, and require a data layout to minimize the cost while guaranteeing the SLAs and other constraints."

In addition to obtaining background information on this patent application, VerticalNews editors also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent application: "The invention is directed to a system to optimize layout of database objects in a relational database management system stored on a plurality of storage classes each characterized by a price and a storage capacity, the system includes a time-based query optimizer with a processor to estimate an execution time of a query workload on a data layout for the plurality of storage classes, wherein the plurality of storage classes comprise at least one of a hard disk device (HDD), a first solid state disk (SSD), and a second SSD, wherein the first SSD is faster than the second SSD and wherein the optimizer detects interactions between query plans and underlying data layout and dynamically update a cheapest query plan and response time of a query based on the changing data layout that maps database objects to storage devices, and a layout recommender coupled to the time-based query optimizer to estimate a total cost of operation (TCO) for the query workload on each data layout, wherein the layout recommender determines an optimal data layout that minimizes the TCO for the storage classes by provisioning enough resources to meet requirements of a service level agreement (SLA) and minimizing total operating cost, wherein the layout recommender includes an auxiliary object selection comprising database objects that include auxiliary objects that are optional to place with auxiliary object candidates being given from an auxiliary object recommender component.

"These and other advantages of the invention will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art by reference to the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings.


"FIG. 1 shows an exemplary I/O sub-system that requires a data layout.

"FIG. 2 (a) shows an exemplary system to optimize layout of database objects on storage devices with a minimum total cost of operation (TCO).

"FIG. 2 (b) shows the exemplary system to optimize layout of database objects on storage devices with a minimum total cost of operation (TCO) that includes auxiliary object selection.

"FIG. 3 shows another exemplary system to optimize layout of database objects on storage devices with a minimum TCO.

"FIG. 4 shows an exemplary data layout on heterogeneous data storage devices.

"FIG. 5 shows an exemplary computer to perform data layout operations."

For more information, see this patent application: Tatemura, Junichi; Hacigumus, Vahit Hakan. Cost-Effective Data Layout Optimization over Heterogeneous Storage Classes. Filed January 29, 2014 and posted August 7, 2014. Patent URL:

Keywords for this news article include: Information Technology, Information and Data Storage, NEC Laboratories America Inc.

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Source: Information Technology Newsweekly

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