News Column

"Durum Wheat Plants Having a Partially Or Fully Multiplied Genome and Uses Thereof" in Patent Application Approval Process

August 19, 2014



By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Life Science Weekly -- A patent application by the inventors Avidov, Amit (Kiryat-Tivon, IL); Lerner, Alon (Moshav Sharona, IL); Lupo, Itamar (Moshav Elad, IL); Baruch, Limor (Moshav Tel Adashim, IL), filed on August 13, 2012, was made available online on August 7, 2014, according to news reporting originating from Washington, D.C., by NewsRx correspondents (see also Kaiimam Bio Agritech Ltd.).

This patent application is assigned to Kaiimam Bio Agritech Ltd.

The following quote was obtained by the news editors from the background information supplied by the inventors: "The present invention, in some embodiments thereof, relates to Durum wheat plants having a partially or fully multiplied genome and uses thereof.

"Durum wheat or macaroni wheat (also spelled as Durhum; or known as Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum durum) is the only tetraploid species of wheat of commercial importance that is widely cultivated today. Durum wheat has 28 chromosomes originating through intergeneric hybridization and polyploidization involving two diploid grass species: T. urartu (2n=2x =14, AA genome) and a B-genome diploid related to Aegilops speltoides (2n=2x=14, SS genome) and is thus an allotetraploid species

"Among all cultivated wheats, Durum wheat and Bread wheat are the most important cereal crops in the world. Durum wheat is a minor crop, grown on only 8 to 10% of all the wheat cultivated area. The remaining area is cultivated with hexaploid bread wheat.

"Durum wheat is better adapted to semiarid climates than is bread wheat. The world's durum wheat acreage and production is concentrated in the Middle East, North Africa, the former USSR, the North American Great Plains, India, and Mediterranean Europe. Durum is a spring wheat, although winter durum is grown. In spite of its low acreage, durum wheat is an economically important crop because of its unique characteristics and end products. It is generally considered the hardiest of all wheats. Durum kernels are usually large, golden amber, and translucent.

"These characteristics, along with its protein content and gluten strength, make it suitable for manufacturing diverse food products. Pasta is the most common durum end product consumed in Europe, North America, and the former USSR. Products other than pasta are also made from durum wheat. Couscous, made from durum semolina, is consumed mainly in North Africa. Flat bread made from durum wheat and bulgur is part of the main diet in Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria.

"The quality of Durum wheat is highly correlated with the quality of its end products. Durum wheat, with its high kernel weight, test weight, protein content, and gluten strength, is known to be associated with the firmness and resiliency of the cooked pasta products and the stability of cooking.

"Due to the commercial importance of Durum wheat, various Durum plant breeding and genetics programs were developed. Cultivars released from North Dakota's breeding program are grown on over 93% of Durum hectares in North Dakota and surrounding states.

"Additional Background Art Includes:

"U.S. Pat. Application Number 20030005479 teaching methods of chromosome doubling.

"Perak An. Inst. Fitotec. 1940 Vol. 2 pp. 7 reported the injection of colchicine into the coleoptile. Plants with enlarged stomata were obtained in T. durum, T. pyramidale and T. Timopheevi. Only that from T. durum reached maturity; it was highly sterile and produced only four seeds. From these, two plants were obtained, both having 56 chromosomes in the root tips. No polyploids were obtained by treating the seed or the spike."

In addition to the background information obtained for this patent application, NewsRx journalists also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent application: "According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a Durum wheat plant having a partially or fully multiplied genome being at least as fertile as a tetraploid Durum wheat (Triticum durum) plant isogenic to the genomically multiplied Durum wheat plant when grown under the same conditions and being of the same developmental stage.

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a hybrid plant having as a parental ancestor the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant.

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a hybrid Durum wheat plant having a partially or fully multiplied genome.

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a planted field comprising the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant.

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a sown field comprising seeds of the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant is non-transgenic.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant has a spike number at least as similar to that of the tetraploid Durum wheat (Triticum durum) plant under the same developmental stage and growth conditions.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant has a spike width at least as similar to that of the tetraploid Durum wheat (Triticum durum) plant under the same developmental stage and growth conditions.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant has a spikelet number at least as similar to that of the tetraploid Durum wheat (Triticum durum) plant under the same developmental stage and growth conditions.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant has a spike length at least as similar to that of the tetraploid Durum wheat (Triticum durum) plant under the same developmental stage and growth conditions.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant has grain weight at least as similar to that of the tetraploid Durum wheat (Triticum durum) plant under the same developmental stage and growth conditions.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant has grain yield per plant at least as similar to that of the tetraploid Durum wheat (Triticum durum) plant under the same developmental stage and growth conditions.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant has grain yield per area at least as similar to that of the hexaploid common wheat (Triticum durum) plant under the same developmental stage and growth conditions.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant has grain size similar to that of the tetraploid Durum wheat (Triticum durum) plant under the same developmental stage and growth conditions.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant has grain protein content similar to that of the tetraploid Durum wheat (Triticum durum) plant under the same developmental stage and growth conditions.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant has a dry matter weight similar to that of the tetraploid Durum wheat (Triticum durum) plant under the same developmental stage and growth conditions.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant has an average plant height similar to that of the tetraploid Durum wheat (Triticum durum) plant under the same developmental stage and growth conditions.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant has a seed number per spike at least as similar to that of the tetraploid Durum wheat (Triticum durum) plant under the same developmental stage and growth conditions.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the fertility is determined by at least one of:

"number of seeds per plant;

"seed set assay;

"gamete fertility assay; and

"acetocarmine pollen staining.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant is a hexaploid.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant is an octaploid.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant is capable of cross-breeding with a hexaploid wheat.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the hexaploid wheat is a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a plant part of the partially or fully genomically multiplied Durum wheat plant.

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a processed product of the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant or plant part.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the processed product is selected from the group consisting of food, feed, construction material and biofuel.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the food or feed is selected from the group consisting of extruded or non-extruded pasta, macaroni products, couscous, bulgur, Frekeh, breakfast cereals, bread, desserts, poultry and livestock feed.

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a meal produced from the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant or plant part.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant part is a seed or grain (may be interchangeably used herein).

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided an isolated regenerable cell of the partially or fully genomically multiplied Durum wheat plant.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the cell exhibits genomic stability for at least 5 passages in culture.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the cell is from a mertistem, a pollen, a leaf, a root, a root tip, an anther, a pistil, a flower, a seed, grain, a straw or a stem.

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a tissue culture comprising the regenerable cells.

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a method of producing Durum wheat seeds, comprising self-breeding or cross-breeding the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant.

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a method of developing a hybrid plant using plant breeding techniques, the method comprising using the partially or fully genomically multiplied plant as a source of breeding material for self-breeding and/or cross-breeding.

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a method of producing Durum wheat meal, the method comprising: (a) harvesting grains of the partially or fully genomically multiplied Durum plant or plant part; and (b) processing the grains so as to produce the Durum meal.

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a method of generating a Durum wheat seed having a partially or fully multiplied genome, the method comprising contacting the Durum wheat (Triticum durum) seed with a G2/M cell cycle inhibitor under a transiently applied magnetic field thereby generating the Durum wheat seed having a partially or fully multiplied genome.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the G2/M cell cycle inhibitor comprises a microtubule polymerization inhibitor.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the microtubule polymerization inhibitor is selected from the group consisting of colchicine, nocodazole, oryzaline, trifluraline, vinblastine sulphate and analogs of each.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the method further comprises sonicating the seed prior to the contacting.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the method further comprises contacting the seed with a DNA protectant.

"According to some embodiments of the invention, the DNA protectant is selected from the group of an antioxidant and a histone.

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a sample of representative seeds of a Durum wheat plant having a partially or fully multiplied genome being at least as fertile as a tetraploid Durum wheat (Triticum durum) plant isogenic to said genomically multiplied Durum wheat plant when grown under the same conditions and being of the same developmental stage, wherein said sample has been deposited under the Budapest Treaty at the NCIMB under NCIMB 42002.

"According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a sample of representative seeds of a Durum wheat plant having a partially or fully multiplied genome being at least as fertile as a tetraploid Durum wheat (Triticum durum) plant isogenic to said genomically multiplied Durum wheat plant when grown under the same conditions and being of the same developmental stage, wherein said sample of said Durum wheat plant having said partially or fully multiplied genome has been deposited under the Budapest Treaty at the NCIMB under NCIMB 42002.

"Unless otherwise defined, all technical and/or scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which the invention pertains. Although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of embodiments of the invention, exemplary methods and/or materials are described below. In case of conflict, the patent specification, including definitions, will control. In addition, the materials, methods, and examples are illustrative only and are not intended to be necessarily limiting.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

"Some embodiments of the invention are herein described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings. With specific reference now to the drawings in detail, it is stressed that the particulars shown are by way of example and for purposes of illustrative discussion of embodiments of the invention. In this regard, the description taken with the drawings makes apparent to those skilled in the art how embodiments of the invention may be practiced.

"In the drawings:

"FIGS. 1A-F are images of spikes and grains of genomically multiplied Durum wheat plants as compared to their isogenic tetraploid progenitors;

"FIGS. 2A-C are images of a tetraploid Durum wheat (line E-2009-1, FIG. 2A), genomically multiplied hexaploid Durum wheat female plant (D3, FIG. 2B), and a hybrid plant (FIG. 2C) generated by crossing the female hexaploid plant with a male bread wheat line."

URL and more information on this patent application, see: Avidov, Amit; Lerner, Alon; Lupo, Itamar; Baruch, Limor. Durum Wheat Plants Having a Partially Or Fully Multiplied Genome and Uses Thereof. Filed August 13, 2012 and posted August 7, 2014. Patent URL: http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.html&r=3104&p=63&f=G&l=50&d=PG01&S1=20140731.PD.&OS=PD/20140731&RS=PD/20140731

Keywords for this news article include: Kaiimam Bio Agritech Ltd.

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Source: Life Science Weekly


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