The assignee for this patent, patent number 8778280, is
Reporters obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "'
"One type of microfluidic device is a microfluidic chip. Microfluidic chips may include micro-scale features (or 'microfeatures'), such as channels, valves, pumps, and/or reservoirs for storing fluids, for routing fluids to and from various locations on the chip, and/or for reacting fluidic reagents.
"However, existing microfluidic systems lack adequate mechanisms for allowing controlled manipulation of multiple fluids except via prescribed flow patterns, hence limiting the practicality with which the systems can be utilized in various chemical or biological assays. This is because real-world assays often require repetitive manipulation of different reagents under continuously varying conditions.
"Moreover, many existing microfluidic devices are restricted for one specific use and cannot be easily adapted or customized for other applications without being completely redesigned. These devices lack modularity, and therefore cannot share common device components that allow one design to perform multiple functions. This lack of flexibility leads to increased production costs as each use requires the production of a different system.
"Furthermore, many existing microfluidic systems lack any means for straightforward end-point assays that are able to easily detect interactions or existence of analysts resulting from the assays. By way of example, visual detection of sample color changes after an assay is often used to evaluate the assay results, but this technique is rarely applied in a microfluidic system.
"Thus, there exists a need for improved microfluidic systems for processing fluids for analysis of biological or chemical samples. It is desired that the systems are mass producible, inexpensive, and preferably disposable. It is desired that the systems be simple to operate and that many or substantially all of the fluid processing steps be automated. It is desired that the systems be customizable, and be modular such that the system can be easily and rapidly reconfigured to suit various applications. It is desired that the systems be able to provide straightforward and meaningful assay results."
In addition to obtaining background information on this patent, NewsRx editors also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent: "The system and methods described herein, in one embodiment, include a plastic microfluidic chip configured to process one or more reagents. The chip may comprise various microfluidic features including valves, pumps, channels and reservoirs. The micro-features are interconnected to allow various combinations of fluid flow patterns that can be user specified and tailored to a particular application. In particular, the chip allows for the transport of one or more reagents from respective reagent reservoirs on a reagent cartridge to multiple assay channels via a transport structure. The transport is directed by the automated operation of pneumatically driven pumps and valves. By coordinating the flow of reagent from the reagent reservoirs to the channels both spatially and temporally using the automated methods described herein, a user can efficiently perform biological immunoassays.
"In one aspect, the microfluidic chip includes a plastic substrate having a plurality of channels, a distribution structure for introducing a reagent into at least one of the channels, and a configurable transport system for controllably directing a flow of the reagent in the channels.
"In one aspect, the channels include a plurality of inlet channels, a plurality of outlet channels and a plurality of assay channels. The configurable transport system comprises a distribution valve connected to the inlet channels and outlet channels for distributing reagents to the assay channels. The assay channels are configured for conducting biological assays.
"In one aspect, the inlet channels, outlet channels, assay channels and distribution structure are disposed in the substrate body.
"In one aspect, the porting device is a separate reagent cartridge that is detachably coupled to a top surface of the substrate and has a plurality of reagent reservoirs fluidly communicating with the respective inlet channels. The inlet channels are individually valve controlled to deliver reagents from the respective reagent reservoirs to the assay channels through the distribution valve and the outlet channels.
"In another aspect, there is a buffer reservoir aligned with an inlet channel to the distribution valve. The buffer reservoir features a substantially larger storage volume than the individual reagent reservoirs for storing a washing buffer. A diaphragm valve located beneath the buffer reservoir controllably releases the washing buffer into the assay channels through the distribution valve.
"In another aspect, the invention includes one or more shuttle reservoirs and outlet reservoirs for storing reagents and buffer that are transported during reaction incubation. The shuttle reservoirs are connected to the corresponding outlet reservoirs through respective assay channels. The volumes of a shuttle reservoir and an outlet reservoir are substantially larger than the volume of an assay channel so that a reaction reagent in the assay channel can be transported into the shuttle reservoir and/or the outlet reservoir during reaction incubation.
"In another aspect, the invention includes an on-chip waste reservoir aligned with an outlet channel to the distribution valve. The waste reservoir features a substantially larger storage volume than the buffer reservoir for storing all used reagents and washing buffer. An independently actuated diaphragm valve located beneath the waste reservoir regulates fluid flow into the waste reservoir from the shuttle and/or outlet reservoirs via the distribution valve.
"In another aspect, the invention includes one or more bi-directional fluidic pumps each coupled to at least three valves respectively controlling a fluid flow through an assay channel, a shuttle reservoir and an outlet channel to the distribution valve. The pump-and-valves structure enables multiple fluid drawing and delivery patterns such as from a reagent reservoir to a shuttle reservoir, from a reagent reservoir to an assay channel to an outlet reservoir, from a shuttle reservoir to an outlet reservoir via an assay channel, from an outlet reservoir to a shuttle reservoir via an assay channel, from an outlet reservoir to a waste reservoir and from a shuttle reservoir to a waste reservoir.
"In another aspect, the porting device comprises a separate reagent chip including the inlet channels, the distribution valve and a plurality of reagent reservoirs. The reagent reservoirs are aligned with the inlet channels for introducing reagents to the distribution valve. The porting device also includes a ducting chip having the outlet channels disposed therein. The ducting chip is adapted to detachably couple to the reagent chip and the substrate for introducing the reagents from the reagent chip to the assay channels in the substrate. The separation of an application chip into several modules allows greater design and fabrication flexibility, the utilization of a variety of chip materials and the repetitive usage of the reagent cartridge.
"In another aspect, the invention includes an insert disposed in a void volume of an assay channel for conducting biological assays or chemical reactions, wherein the assay channel is configured to receive the insert and prevent a reaction surface of the insert from contacting the channel surface.
"In another aspect, the assay channel is adapted to receive the insert from an opening of the outlet reservoir connected to the assay channel.
"In another aspect, the void volume of the assay channel includes an opening to the top surface of the substrate wherein the insert can be disposed, and a lid for removably covering the opening of the void volume.
"In another aspect, the reaction surface of the insert may include one or more samples analytes or agent for potentially interacting with reagents delivered from the reagent cartridge. The samples analytes or agents are chosen for specific applications. In certain embodiments, the insert includes a perforated membrane film strip and at least one membrane disk coupled to a surface of the membrane film strip and aligned with an aperture on the membrane film strip. The membrane disks are each coated with an agent sample containing a biological and/or chemical material such as a target analyte or analyte-capturing antibodies. In certain embodiments, the apertures include a central circular region and two rectangular regions open to the circular region. The rectangular regions are configured to trap air bubbles in a fluidic flow through the assay channel.
"In another aspect, the film strip is made from a non-elastomeric plastic adhesive materials. In certain embodiments, the non-elastomer plastic material includes polymethyl methacrylate, polystyrene, polycarbonate and acrylic. In certain embodiments, the membrane disks are made from nitrocellulose, PVDF and/or nylon.
"In another aspect, a heating element is coupled to the microfluidic chip for controlling the assay temperature for enhanced assay repeatability, speed and sensitivity.
"In another aspect, the invention provides a method for conducting biological assays. After one or more sample-spotted inserts are disposed into the appropriate assay channels, reagents from the reagent cartridge can be flown through the assay channels via the distribution structure, thereby contacting the reaction surfaces of the inserts. Washing buffer from the buffer reservoir may also be flown through the assay channels to contact the inserts in the channels. During a reaction incubation period or a washing period, excessive reaction reagents and/or washing buffer in the assay channels are pumped back and forth between a shuttle reservoir and an outlet reservoir connected to each assay channel. At the conclusion of the assays, fluidic wastes stored in the shuttle reservoirs and the outlet reservoirs are pumped into the waste reservoir via the distribution structure. By flowing appropriate reagents, including buffers, washing reagents, antibodies, antigens, enzyme conjugates and their substrates, the microfluidic chip can be used to perform an immunoassay or other biological assay on each membrane disk in order to detect the target analytes.
"In another aspect, the shuttle reservoirs are used as reagent reservoirs for creating individual assay conditions in each assay channel. Unlike a reagent delivered from the reagent reservoir that creates uniform assay conditions in all assay channels, different reagents or reagents of different concentrations in the shuttle reservoirs may be individually delivered to the assay channels for performing parallel, but non-uniform biological assays.
"In another aspect, the end result of an assay is detected by color changes on the inserts using an automated image analysis procedure. The procedure involves quantitatively digitizing an array of color-spotted samples in the assay chip and quantitatively determining the color intensity corresponding to each pixel of a sample spot to generate an averaged, or pixilated, value for each sample. The sample color intensity values yield information about the biological samples on corresponding membrane disks. A threshold value may be computed by using negative control samples. The threshold value, the color intensity values, and the various images corresponding to the sample array may be stored and archived for future reference.
"In another aspect, the invention allows for porting of a microfluidic chip to a controller capable of driving the pump and valve structures on the chip. The controller may be electronically or wirelessly connected to a computer or a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), such as BlackBerry or Palm Pilot, providing an interface for a user to programmably control the assay reactions on the chip.
"The inherently small dimensions of devices achieve a portable microfluidic system. Combined with the programmable control directing flow of several reagents through several microchannels into several outlet reservoirs, this invention provides a framework for offering portable 'Point-of-Care' (POC) systems with automated assay processing that can be run by users with little training.
"In one aspect, the microfluidic chips of this invention are made entirely from plastic materials. In one embodiment, an entire microfluidic chip suitable for portable immunoassay is made from polystyrene, which results in extremely low fabrication costs. An enabler for the use of polystyrene in such an application while preserving the integrity and reliability of the microfeatures disposed therein is the use of weak solvent bonding. These aspects of the technology are described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/242,694, incorporated by reference herein in its entirety."
For more information, see this patent: Zhou, Peng; Young,
Keywords for this news article include: Rheonix,
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