Patent number 8779251 is assigned to
The following quote was obtained by the news editors from the background information supplied by the inventors: "The present invention relates generally to the field of cotton breeding. In particular, the invention relates to the novel cotton variety 09R532B2R2.
"There are numerous steps in the development of any novel, desirable plant germplasm. Plant breeding begins with the analysis and definition of problems and weaknesses of the current germplasm, the establishment of program goals, and the definition of specific breeding objectives. The next step is selection of germplasm that possess the traits to meet the program goals. The goal is to combine in a single variety an improved combination of desirable traits from the parental germplasm. These important traits may include resistance to diseases and insects, tolerance to drought and heat, tolerance to herbicides, improvements in fiber traits and numerous other agronomic traits that may be desirable to the farmer or end user.
"Choice of breeding or selection methods depends on the mode of plant reproduction, the heritability of the trait(s) being improved, and the type of variety used commercially (e.g., F.sub.1 hybrid variety, pureline variety, etc.). For highly heritable traits, a choice of superior individual plants evaluated at a single location will be effective, whereas for traits with low heritability, selection should be based on mean values obtained from replicated evaluations of families of related plants. Popular selection methods commonly include pedigree selection, modified pedigree selection, mass selection, recurrent selection and backcrossing.
"The complexity of inheritance influences choice of the breeding method. Backcross breeding is used to transfer one or a few favorable genes for a highly heritable trait into a desirable variety. This approach has been used extensively for breeding disease-resistant plant varieties. Various recurrent selection techniques are used to improve quantitatively inherited traits controlled by numerous genes. The use of recurrent selection in self-pollinating crops depends on the ease of pollination, the frequency of successful hybrids from each pollination, and the number of offspring from each successful cross.
"Each breeding program should include a periodic, objective evaluation of the efficiency of the breeding procedure. Evaluation criteria vary depending on the goal and objectives, but should include gain from selection per year based on comparisons to an appropriate standard, overall value of the advanced breeding lines, and number of successful varieties produced per unit of input (e.g., per year, per dollar expended, etc.).
"Promising advanced breeding lines are thoroughly tested and compared to appropriate standards in environments representative of the commercial target area(s) for generally three or more years. The best lines are candidates for new commercial varieties. Those still deficient in a few traits may be used as parents to produce new populations for further selection.
"These processes, which lead to the final step of marketing and distribution, may take as much as eight to 12 years from the time the first cross is made. Therefore, development of new varieties is a time-consuming process that requires precise forward planning, efficient use of resources, and a minimum of changes in direction.
"A most difficult task is the identification of individuals that are genetically superior, because for most traits the true genotypic value is masked by other confounding plant traits or environmental factors. One method of identifying a superior plant is to observe its performance relative to other experimental plants and to one or more widely grown standard varieties. Single observations are generally inconclusive, while replicated observations provide a better estimate of genetic worth.
"The goal of plant breeding is to develop new, unique and superior cotton varieties. The breeder initially selects and crosses two or more parental lines, followed by repeated selfing and selection, producing many new genetic combinations. Each year, the plant breeder selects the germplasm to advance to the next generation. This germplasm is grown under unique and different geographical, climatic and soil conditions, and further selections are then made, during and at the end of the growing season. The varieties which are developed are unpredictable. This unpredictability is because the breeder's selection occurs in unique environments, with no control at the DNA level (using conventional breeding procedures), and with millions of different possible genetic combinations being generated. A breeder of ordinary skill in the art cannot predict the final resulting lines he develops, except possibly in a very gross and general fashion. The same breeder cannot produce the same variety twice by using the exact same original parents and the same selection techniques. This unpredictability results in the expenditure of large amounts of research monies to develop superior new cotton varieties.
"Pureline cultivars, such as generally used in cotton and many other crops, are commonly bred by hybridization of two or more parents followed by selection. The complexity of inheritance, the breeding objectives and the available resources influence the breeding method. The development of new varieties requires development and selection, the crossing of varieties and selection of progeny from superior crosses.
"Pedigree breeding and recurrent selection breeding methods are used to develop varieties from breeding populations. Breeding programs combine desirable traits from two or more varieties or various broad-based sources into breeding pools from which varieties are developed by selfing and selection of desired phenotypes. The new varieties are evaluated to determine which have commercial potential.
"Pedigree breeding is commonly used for the improvement of self-pollinating crops. Two parents which possess favorable, complementary traits are crossed to produce an F.sub.1. An F.sub.2 population is produced by selfing one or several F.sub.1 plants. Selection of the best individuals may begin in the F.sub.2 population or later depending upon objectives of the breeder; then, beginning in the F.sub.3, the best individuals in the best families can be selected. Replicated testing of families can begin in the F.sub.3 or F.sub.4 generation to improve the effectiveness of selection for traits with low heritability. At an advanced stage of inbreeding (i.e., F.sub.6 and F.sub.7), the best lines or mixtures of phenotypically similar lines are typically tested for potential release as new varieties.
"Mass and recurrent selections can be used to improve populations of either self- or cross-pollinating crops. A genetically variable population of heterozygous individuals is either identified or created by intercrossing several different parents. The best plants are selected based on individual superiority, outstanding progeny, or excellent combining ability. The selected plants are intercrossed to produce a new population in which further cycles of selection are continued.
"The single-seed descent procedure in the strict sense refers to planting a segregating population, harvesting a sample of one seed per plant, and using the one-seed sample to plant the next generation. When the population has been advanced from the F.sub.2 to the desired level of inbreeding, the plants from which lines are derived will each trace to different F.sub.2 individuals. The number of plants in a population declines each generation due to failure of some seeds to germinate or some plants to produce at least one seed. As a result, not all of the F.sub.2 plants originally sampled in the population will be represented by a progeny when generation advance is completed.
"The modified single seed descent procedures involve harvesting multiple seed (i.e., a single lock or a simple boll) from each plant in a population and combining them to form a bulk. Part of the bulk is used to plant the next generation and part is put in reserve. This procedure has been used to save labor at harvest and to maintain adequate seed quantities of the population. The multiple-seed procedure may be used to save labor. It is considerably faster to gin bolls with a machine than to remove one seed by hand for the single-seed procedure. The multiple-seed procedure also makes it possible to plant the same number of seeds of a population each generation of inbreeding. Enough seeds are harvested to make up for those plants that did not germinate or produce seed.
"Descriptions of other breeding methods that are commonly used for different traits and crops can be found in one of several reference books (e.g., Allard, In: Principles of plant breeding,
"Proper testing should detect any major faults and establish the level of superiority or improvement over current varieties. In addition to showing superior performance, there must be a demand for a new variety that is compatible with industry standards or which creates a new market. The introduction of a new variety will incur additional costs to the seed producer, the grower, processor and consumer; for special advertising and marketing, altered seed and commercial production practices, and new product utilization. The testing preceding release of a new variety should take into consideration research and development costs as well as technical superiority of the final variety. For seed-propagated varieties, it must be feasible to produce seed easily and economically.
"The two cotton species commercially grown in
"Cotton is an important and valuable field crop. Thus, a continuing goal of plant breeders is to develop stable, high yielding cotton varieties that are agronomically sound. The reasons for this goal are obviously to maximize the amount and quality of the fiber produced on the land used and to supply fiber, oil and food for animals and humans. To accomplish this goal, the cotton breeder must select and develop plants that have the traits that result in superior cultivars.
"The goal of a commercial cotton breeding program is to develop new, unique and superior cotton varieties. In cotton, important traits include higher fiber (lint) yield, earlier maturity, improved fiber quality, resistance to diseases and insects, tolerance to drought and heat, and improved agronomic traits. The breeder initially selects and crosses two or more parental lines, followed by generation advancement and selection, thus producing many new genetic combinations. The breeder can theoretically generate billions of different genetic combinations via this procedure."
In addition to the background information obtained for this patent, NewsRx journalists also obtained the inventor's summary information for this patent: "One aspect of the present invention relates to seed of the cotton variety 09R532B2R2. The invention also relates to plants produced by growing the seed of the cotton variety 09R532B2R2, as well as the derivatives of such plants. In a further aspect of the invention, a composition is provided comprising a seed of cotton variety 09R532B2R2 comprised in plant seed growth media. In certain embodiments, the plant seed growth media is a soil or synthetic cultivation medium. As used herein, the term 'plant' includes plant cells, plant protoplasts, plant cells of a tissue culture from which cotton plants can be regenerated, plant calli, plant clumps, and plant cells that are intact in plants or parts of plants, such as pollen, flowers, seeds, bolls, leaves, stems, and the like.
"Another aspect of the invention relates to a tissue culture of regenerable cells of the cotton variety 09R532B2R2, as well as plants regenerated therefrom, wherein the regenerated cotton plant expresses all the physiological and morphological characteristics of a plant grown from the cotton seed designated 09R532B2R2.
"Yet another aspect of the current invention is a cotton plant of the cotton variety 09R532B2R2 comprising at least a first transgene, wherein the cotton plant is otherwise capable of expressing all the physiological and morphological characteristics of the cotton variety 09R532B2R2. In particular embodiments of the invention, a plant is provided that comprises a single locus conversion. A single locus conversion may comprise a transgenic gene which has been introduced by genetic transformation into the cotton variety 09R532B2R2 or a progenitor thereof. A transgenic or non-transgenic single locus conversion can also be introduced by backcrossing, as is well known in the art. In certain embodiments of the invention, the single locus conversion may comprise a dominant or recessive allele. The locus conversion may confer potentially any desired trait upon the plant as described herein.
"Still yet another aspect of the invention relates to a first generation (F.sub.1) hybrid cotton seed produced by crossing a plant of the cotton variety 09R532B2R2 to a second cotton plant. Also included in the invention are the F.sub.1 hybrid cotton plants grown from the hybrid seed produced by crossing the cotton variety 09R532B2R2 to a second cotton plant. Still further included in the invention are the seeds of an F.sub.1 hybrid plant produced with the cotton variety 09R532B2R2 as one parent, the second generation (F.sub.2) hybrid cotton plant grown from the seed of the F.sub.1 hybrid plant, and the seeds of the F.sub.2 hybrid plant.
"Still yet another aspect of the invention is a method of producing cotton seeds comprising crossing a plant of the cotton variety 09R532B2R2 to any second cotton plant, including itself or another plant of the variety 09R532B2R2. In particular embodiments of the invention, the method of crossing comprises the steps of a) planting seeds of the cotton variety 09R532B2R2; b) cultivating cotton plants resulting from said seeds until said plants bear flowers; c) allowing fertilization of the flowers of said plants; and, d) harvesting seeds produced from said plants.
"Still yet another aspect of the invention is a method of producing hybrid cotton seeds comprising crossing the cotton variety 09R532B2R2 to a second, distinct cotton plant which is nonisogenic to the cotton variety 09R532B2R2. In particular embodiments of the invention, the crossing comprises the steps of a) planting seeds of cotton variety 09R532B2R2 and a second, distinct cotton plant, b) cultivating the cotton plants grown from the seeds until the plants bear flowers; c) cross pollinating a flower on one of the two plants with the pollen of the other plant, and d) harvesting the seeds resulting from the cross pollinating.
"Still yet another aspect of the invention is a method for developing a cotton plant in a cotton breeding program comprising: obtaining a cotton plant, or its parts, of the variety 09R532B2R2; and b) employing said plant or parts as a source of breeding material using plant breeding techniques. In the method, the plant breeding techniques may be selected from the group consisting of recurrent selection, mass selection, bulk selection, backcrossing, pedigree breeding, genetic marker-assisted selection and genetic transformation. In certain embodiments of the invention, the cotton plant of variety 09R532B2R2 is used as the male or female parent.
"Still yet another aspect of the invention is a method of producing a cotton plant derived from the cotton variety 09R532B2R2, the method comprising the steps of: (a) preparing a progeny plant derived from cotton variety 09R532B2R2 by crossing a plant of the cotton variety 09R532B2R2 with a second cotton plant; and (b) crossing the progeny plant with itself or a second plant to produce a progeny plant of a subsequent generation which is derived from a plant of the cotton variety 09R532B2R2. In one embodiment of the invention, the method further comprises: © crossing the progeny plant of a subsequent generation with itself or a second plant; and (d) repeating steps (b) and © for at least 2-10 additional generations to produce an inbred cotton plant derived from the cotton variety 09R532B2R2. Also provided by the invention is a plant produced by this and the other methods of the invention. Plant variety 09R532B2R2-derived plants produced by this and the other methods of the invention described herein may, in certain embodiments of the invention, be further defined as comprising the traits of plant variety 09R532B2R2 given in Table 1.
"The use of the word 'a' or 'an' when used in conjunction with the term 'comprising' in the claims and/or the specification may mean 'one,' but it is also consistent with the meaning of 'one or more,' 'at least one,' and 'one or more than one.'
"Other objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description. It should be understood, however, that the detailed description and the specific examples, while indicating specific embodiments of the invention, are given by way of illustration only, since various changes and modifications within the spirit and scope of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from this detailed description."
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