Patent number 8778362 is assigned to
The following quote was obtained by the news editors from the background information supplied by the inventors: "There is a great interest in therapeutic and prophylactic cancer vaccines. A variety of methods have been examined. For example, vaccines derived from whole cells have been examined and found to have a larger number of antigens, and reported to have met with some success. Tissue vaccines are derived from tumor material harvested directly from tumor-bearing individuals, and contain not only antigens associated with neoplastic cells, but also a menu of antigens associated with the tumor connective tissue and extracellular matrix.
"A material known by the acronym SIS, comprised of an extracellular matrix material derived from porcine small intestinal submucosa, has been described as a material useful as a tissue scaffold. (
"By way of further background, a variety of extracellular matrix materials have been proposed for use in medical grafting, cell culture, and other related applications. For instance, medical grafts and cell culture materials containing submucosa derived from small intestine, stomach or urinary bladder tissues have been proposed. (See, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,902,508, 4,956,178, 5,281,422, 5,554,389, 6,099,567 and 6,206,931.) In addition,
"Medical materials derived from liver basement membrane have also been proposed, for example in U.S. Pat. No. 6,379,710. As well, ECM materials derived from amnion (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,361,552 and 6,576,618) and from renal capsule membrane (see, e.g., WO003002165) have been proposed for medical and/or cell culture applications.
"Some investigators have reported that small intestinal submucosa (SIS) material has an improved biocompatibility that makes it a useful tissue scaffolding material. (Woods, et al., (2004), Biomaterials, 25 (3):515-525.) In Woods, it is hypothesized that the human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured on SIS (HUVEC) deposited human basement membrane proteins to create what was termed a 'conditioned' SIS (c-SIS). The surface properties of the c-SIS were hypothesized to be changed in such a way that, upon re-seeding of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on the c-SIS substrate, the cells exhibited enhanced organization of cellular junctures and an increase in metabolic activity, compared to HUVEC cells cultured on a native, non-conditioned SIS (n-SIS) substrate. The HUVEC cells cultured on c-SIS were reported to release lower amounts of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin PGI.sub.2 into the media, compared to HUVEC grown on n-SIS substrate. These effects were concluded to provide an SIS with improved properties as a tissue scaffolding material.
"One group of researchers describe a conditioned cell culture media prepared from a culture of non-cancerous, non-tumor elasmobrach fish immune cells (i.e., cells obtained from epigonal organ or Leydig organ of elasmobrach fishes (e.g., sharks, skates, and rays)), and report the media to demonstrate anti-tumor activity (U.S. Pat. No. 7,309,501). The non-tumorous, non-cancerous fish immune cells are described as having released immune substances into the media of these cultures. These preparations do not describe the use of cells other than non-tumor, non-cancerous fish immune cells. Further, these preparations did not involve or reference the growth of cells on an extracellular matrix.
"Carcinoma cells have been described as depositing fibrinogen. Fibrinogen is not converted to fibrin in the tumor stroma. The microenvironment of a tumor is composed of an amalgam of secreted soluble factors, solid material and tumor cells. Secreted soluble factors include chemokines such as CXCR-4 and CXCL-2, matrix altering enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), protease inhibitors, and growth factors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)), all of which are stored in the surrounding ECM and released when required by the tumor cells (via protease-mediated degradation of the ECM). The surrounding ECM itself, which is composed of the interstitial matrix and basement membrane, constitutes the noncellular solid material, which is critical in the anchorage and migration of malignant cancer cells. (Alphonso, et al. (2009), Neoplasia, 11:1264-1271).
"Cancer cells have been described as producing proteases (e.g., matrix metalloproteases, elastase, cathepsin-L) that remodel the ECM associated with a tumor. (Sund, et al., (2009), Cancer Metastasis Rev., 28:177-183). This remodeling leads to the release of substances sequestered in the ECM, as well as bioactive cleavage fragments from ECM proteins, such as collagen and proteoglycans. Sequestered substances which may be released into the tumor ECM include VEGF, which further influences tumor progression. Cancer cells also interact with the microenvironment through the release of soluble factors and through cell-matrix interactions. Examples of secretions or by-products include cadhereins, integrins, cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-.alpha., PDGF, EGF and TGF-.beta.). Additional secreted molecules include endothelins, plasmin and uPA. (Zigrino, et al. (2005), Biochimie, 87:321-328).
"Human breast cancer cells are shown to synthesize, secrete and deposit fibrinogen into the ECM. (Rybarczyk, et al. (2000), Cancer Res., 60: 2033-2039). Prostate cancer cells, in particular, have been reported to secrete bFGF, PDGF and TNF-.alpha.. (Kaminski, et al. (2006), Expert Opin. Ther. Targets, 14, 77-94). These and other products synthesized by various types of cancer cells have been described to contribute to the growth/spreading of cancer cells. However, it remains unknown whether tumor/cancer cell secretions and/or by-products demonstrate any anti-tumor and/or anti-cancer activities.
"A need continues to exist in the medical arts for improved anti-cancer/anti-tumor preparations. In particular, improved preparations that are essentially cell free (acellular) that posses a tumor and/or cancer inhibiting activity continue to be pursued in the quest for improved anti-cancer and anti-tumor pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Improved tools for treatment and containment of cancer and tumor growth remain to be developed, and present the promise of a new generation of vaccines."
In addition to the background information obtained for this patent, NewsRx journalists also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent: "The present invention satisfies the above need in the art among many others. Various embodiments of the present invention are directed to a tumor inhibiting conditioned preparation comprising a conditioned heterologous acellular collagenous material substrate and anti-tumor, anti-cancer or combination of anti-tumor and anti-cancer biomolecules, wherein tumor and/or cancer cells have been cultured on said preparation under conditions suitable for growth of said cells on said substrate. The tumor and/or cancer cells can include melanoma cells or prostate tumor cells, among others. In certain embodiments, the prostate tumor cells are human prostate cells. In some embodiments of the invention, the substrate is an extracellular matrix. In others, the substrate is essentially free of tumor and/or cancer cells.
"In other embodiments of the invention, a method for inhibiting tumor regrowth in a patient is provided comprising: preparing the tumor inhibiting conditioned preparation of the present invention; applying said preparation to a site in a patient at which a tumor or cancerous cell growth has been removed; and inhibiting tumor regrowth at said site. In certain embodiments of the invention, the method further comprises the step of processing the preparation to remove cellular material without degradation to the collagen components of the preparation. This processing step can comprise treatment with a chemical compound, soniciation or freezing the preparation and thawing the preparation, among others.
"Certain embodiments of the present invention are directed to a vaccine comprising the tumor inhibiting conditioned preparation of the present invention.
"In other embodiments, a tumor wound dressing material is provided comprising the tumor inhibiting conditioned preparation of the present invention.
"Still other embodiments of the invention provide an injectable preparation suitable for subcutaneous administration to a patient as a vaccine comprising the substrate of the present invention in a particulate form in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
"Further embodiments of the invention are directed to a method of preparing a tumor and/or cancer conditioned extracellular matrix substrate comprising: culturing tumor and/or cancer mammalian cells on a substrate suitable for the culture of said cells for a period of time and under conditions suitable for growth of said cells on said substrate so as to provide a conditioned substrate; and processing said conditioned substrate to remove cellular components from said culture."
URL and more information on this patent, see: Suckow, Mark A.; Hiles,
Keywords for this news article include: Acute-Phase Proteins, Antigens, Biological Factors, Biotechnology Companies,
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