Internet service providers from around the world are lodging formal complaints against the
The claims from seven organisations based in six countries - the
The claims are being filed with the investigatory powers tribunal (IPT), the court in
The IPT is already considering a number of related submissions. Later this month it will investigate complaints by human rights groups about the way social media sites have been targeted by GCHQ.
The government has defended the security services, pointing out that online searches are often routed overseas and those deemed "external communications" can be monitored without the need for an individual warrant. Critics say that such a legal interpretation sidesteps the need for traditional safeguards.
The latest claim is against both GCHQ, located near
One technique was a "man in the middle" attack, which, according to the documents filed at the IPT, bypasses encryption software and "operates by interposing the attacker [GCHQ] between two computers that believe that they are securely communicating with each other. In fact, each is communicating with GCHQ, who collect the communications, as well as relaying them in the hope that the interference will be undetected."
The complaint alleges that the attacks were a breach of the Computer Misuse Act 1990 and an interference with the privacy rights of the employees under the European convention of human rights.
The organisations targeted, the submission states, were all "responsible and professional internet service providers". The claimants are
Their complaint follows articles about mass surveillance in the Guardian based on material released by Snowden.
Among the programs said to have been operating were Turbine, which automates the injection of data and can infect millions of machines and Warrior Pride, which enables microphones on iPhones and Android devices to be remotely activated.
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