"Concentrate Derived from a Milk Product Enriched in Naturally Occurring Sialyllactose and a Process for Preparation Thereof" in Patent Application Approval Process
This patent application is assigned to Arla Foods Amba.
The following quote was obtained by the news editors from the background information supplied by the inventors: "Communication between cells is central and ubiquitous in the human body. Key players in these processes are extracellular carbohydrate moieties bound to specific substances, e.g. different membrane molecules, cytokines or pathogens. One important component of these carbohydrate moieties is sialic acid, a nine-carbon monosaccharide present in most human and animal tissues. The concentration of sialic acid is high in tissues with high rates of processing and interaction such as the brain. It is present in all human body fluids, of which its content is especially high in milk. Sialic acid can be synthesised by the body.
"Sialic acid has gained much scientific focus the last two decades, see Wang, B. and
"The dietary aspects of the emerging knowledge on sialic acid function in the human body have also been studied. Sialic acid is a major part of human milk oligosaccharides, indicating a nutritional role. Furthermore, brain and saliva of breast fed infants were found to contain significantly more sialic acid than those of infants fed commercial formula containing only minute amounts of sialic acid, suggesting an effective absorption of this carbohydrate moiety (see Tram, TH., et al., Sialic acid content of infant saliva: comparison of breast fed with formula fed infants, Arch Dis Childh 1997: 77:315-8, Wang, B., et al., A longitudinal study of salivary sialic acid in preterm infants: Comparison of human milk-fed versus formula-fed infants, J Pediatr 2001; 138:914-6 and Wang B., et al., Brain ganglioside and glycoprotein sialic acid in breastfed compared with formula-fed infants, Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78:1024-9).
"Sialic acid exists in several chemical forms in nature. In body tissues it is found as part of oligosaccharide chains bound to proteins or lipids with only little available as free sialic acid. In milk it is mainly bound to glycoproteins or free oligosaccharades. However, minor quantities are found as free or lipid bound sialic acid.
"In human milk, the majority of sialic acid is bound to oligosaccharides. The concentration of oligosaccharides containing sialic acid vary greatly with lactation stage as well as individually. Several authors have measured the content in human full term milk, finding contents ranging from more than 1 g/L in the first week to around 90-450 mg/L in mature milk (see Martin-Sosa, S., et al., Distribution of Sialic Acids in the Milk of Spanish Mothers of Full Term Infants During Lactation, J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2004; 39:499-503, Carlson, S.E., N-Acetylneuraminic acid concentrations in human milk oligosaccharides and glycoproteins during lactation, Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 41:720-6, Martin-Sosa, S., et al., Sialyloligosacchardies in Human and Bovine Milk and in Infant Formulas: Variations with the Progression of Lactation, J Dairy Sci 2003; 86:52-59, and Wang, B., et al. Concentration and distribution of sialic acid in human milk and infant formulas, Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 74:510-5).
"In contrast, the majority of sialic acid in bovine milk is bound to proteins. Bovine mature milk contains only little oligosaccharide bound sialic acid. In colostrums the content is around 230 mg/L, whereas it is 25-54 mg/L in mature bovine milk (see Martin, M. J., et al., Distribution of Bovine Milk Sialoglycoconjugates During Lactation, J Dairy Sci 2001; 84:995-1000, and Martin-Sosa, S., et al., Sialyloligosacchardies in Human and Bovine Milk and in infant Formulas: Variations with the Progression of Lactation, J Dairy Sci 2003; 86:52-59).
"Bovine based infant and follow on formulas are produced from mature bovine milk and the content of oligosaccharide bound sialic acid in these products has been found to be 15-35 mg/L, whereas that of preterm formulas was found to be slightly higher with 80 mg/
"With the sialyllactose concentrate of the present invention, infant formulas can be enriched with oligosaccharide bound sialic acid in concentrations matching human milk, i.e. the total concentration of oligosaccharide bound sialic acid can be increased to 100-1500 mg/L matching concentrations of human milk of various lactation stages. However, the scope of the present invention is not limited to this range of enrichment due to the great variations in human milk composition and also due to the fact that other food applications may require other oligosaccharide bound sialic acid concentrations.
"Commercially, sialic acid containing ingredients for use in foods are available. One such ingredient is bovine sialic acid bound to the protein .kappa.-casein, commercially available from
"Thus, existing commercially available products containing sialic acid are either not obtained from natural sources, i.e. they are produced synthetically or by using recombinant techniques, or they comprise sialic acid bound primarily to proteins and not oligosaccharides as in human milk. The product of the present invention is as far as we know the first product comprising a concentrate of oligosaccharides containing sialic acid which is derived from a natural ruminant milk source in a high concentration."
In addition to the background information obtained for this patent application, NewsRx journalists also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent application: "The present invention relates to a concentrate derived from a milk product enriched in naturally occurring sialyllactose in a milk product, so that the content of sialyllactose is from 0.32 to 25% by weight, based on dry matter. The concentrate can be dried. Such a sialyllactose concentrate powder obtained from a natural ruminant milk source are intended to be incorporated into various kinds of foods including, but not limited to, infant formulas and other infant nutrition foods, child nutrition, functional foods and foods for medical and dietetic purposes.
"Such a concentrate can according to the invention be prepared by ultrafiltration of a milk product containing naturally occurring sialyllactose followed by diafiltration of the ultrafiltration retentate using the same ultrafiltration membrane, optionally followed by reverse osmosis and/or drying, wherein the membrane is a thin film polyamide based membrane.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
"The concentrate of the invention has a content of sialyllactose from 0.32 to 25% by weight, based on dry matter, preferably 0.4 to 25%, 1 to 25%, 5 to 25%, 10 to 15%.
"The milk product can be milk or any milk product derived from a ruminant or another milk producing animal. The milk product can for example be a bovine whey product, such as whey retentate or whey permeate. It can also be the mother liquor from preparation of lactose from whey. It is also possible to use, milk permeates, milk retentates, fractionated milk retentate or any other milk products containing sialyllactose.
"The concentrate of the invention can be used as such, or it can be further treated by for example reverse osmosis, crystallisation, affinity chromatography or a combination there of to remove water, or it can be dried alone or together with one or more carriers. Any carriers can be used, such as oil, fat, whey, demineralised whey, whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate, other whey fractions, whey or milk permeate or concentrate, skimmed milk; whole milk, semi-skimmed milk, milk fractions, maltodextrins, sucrose, lactose, native and pregelatinised starches, glucose syrups, casein and casein fractions.
"The concentrate of the invention, including a dried concentrate can be used in any nutritional compositions, such as products for infant nutrition, protein bars, sports nutrition, drinks, health supplements, food for medical purposes and clinical nutrition. Infant nutrition can be, but is not restricted to, infant formulas, follow-on formulas, infant cereal products or growing-up milk, i.e. modified milk or milk powder suitable for children of 1-3 years.
"The process will of course also work using two different thin film polyamide based membranes, manufactured by the same or different manufacturers, where one membrane is used for UF and the other for DIA filtration. Alternatively combinations of two or more different thin film polyamide based membranes, manufactured by the same or different manufacturers, could be used simultaneously for UF and DIA filtration. It is necessary that the different membranes possess appropriate MWCO cut off values as described within this patent.
"One preferred embodiment of the process of the invention uses a membrane with a suitable molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 0.5-4 k Dalton with 2.5 k Dalton being most preferable. 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 3.5 k Dalton are also useful.
"The membrane is a thin film polyamide based membrane such as a GE Osmonics GH series membrane or a corresponding membrane normally used for ultrafiltration. The temperature is not critical, but normally 4-50.degree. C. will be used, for example 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10.degree. C., but also higher temperatures such as 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 or even 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 or 50.degree. C. can be used.
"The pressure is not critical, but normally 1-40 bar will be used. The recommendation of the membrane manufacturer can be used. The best results will normally be at 1-10 bar pressure, for example 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 bar, but also higher pressures such as 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 or even 20, 25, 30, 35, or 40 bar can be used. The feed pressure can be as low as 1 bar and as high as 50 bar. Typically feed pressures are 5-6 bar or 10 bar. The best results are normally obtained using 1-10 bar, but higher feed pressures will normally work, even if they are not as effective.
"The present invention used cross-flow spiral wound membranes, however other membranes and configurations may alternatively be used. Alternative membranes and configurations may be, but are not limited to cross-flow filtration, dead-end filtration, plate and frame systems, cartridge systems, oscillating systems, flat sheet membranes, spiral wound membranes, fibre membranes, and tubular membranes. The membrane is housed in a suitable process unit allowing contacting of the feed and membrane with control of process parameters such as, but not limited to: temperature, pressure, flow rate, pH, etc. The membrane will separate the feed into permeate and retentate process streams. Process streams may be completely removed from the process unit, or in some manner completely or partially recycled within the process unit and associated supply system (tanks and process streams). Prior to use, the membranes and process units are cleaned according to the membrane manufacturer's instructions, using manufacturer approved cleaning agents and process parameters."
URL and more information on this patent application, see: HOLST, Hans Henrik; Gunter, William S.; Mogensen,
Keywords for this news article include: Caseins, Sialic Acids, Glycoproteins, Hydroxy Acids, Arla Foods Amba, Glycoconjugates, Phosphoproteins, Carboxylic Acids, Neuraminic Acids, Organic Chemicals.
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