The assignee for this patent application is
Reporters obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "IL-1.alpha. is pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a role in a number of different activities including inflammation, immune responses, tumor metastasis, and hematopoiesis. IgG autoantibodies against IL-1.alpha. occur naturally in the general human population and are thought to be beneficial in diseases such as atherosclerosis."
In addition to obtaining background information on this patent application, NewsRx editors also obtained the inventor's summary information for this patent application: "The invention is based on the development of fully human monoclonal Abs (mAbs) that include (i) an antigen-binding variable region that exhibits very high binding affinity for human IL-1.alpha. and (ii) a constant region that is effective at both activating the complement system though C1q binding and binding to several different Fc receptors. The IL-1.alpha. specific mAbs described herein was made by replacing the constant region of a human IgG4 mAb having a variable region specific for human IL-1.alpha. with the constant region of a human IgG1 mAb.
"Accordingly, the invention features a purified human IgG1 mAb that specifically binds to human IL-1.alpha., the mAb including a heavy chain covalently joined to a light chain. The heavy chain can include the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 9 and the light chain can include the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:11.
"Also within the invention is a set of isolated nucleic acids including a first nucleic acid encoding the heavy chain of a human IgG1 mAb that specifically binds to IL-1.alpha., and a second nucleic acid encoding the light chain of the human IgG1 mAb that specifically binds to human IL-1.alpha.. The first nucleic acid can encode the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 9 and the second nucleic acid can encode the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:11. The first nucleic acid can include the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10 and the second nucleic acid can include the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:12.
"In another aspect, the invention features an expression vector including a nucleic acid encoding the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 9 or SEQ ID NO: 11.
"Another feature of the invention is an isolated host cell (e.g. a mammalian cell such as a CHO cell) including set of isolated nucleic acids including a first nucleic acid encoding the heavy chain of a human IgG1 mAb that specifically binds to IL-1.alpha., and a second nucleic acid encoding the light chain of the human IgG1 mAb that specifically binds to human IL-1.alpha.. The heavy chain can include the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 9 and a light chain can include the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:11.
"The invention further features a method of killing a cell expressing human IL-1.alpha.. This method can include the step of contacting the cell with a purified human IgG1 mAb that specifically binds to human IL-1.alpha.
"A method of inhibiting migration of a human cell through a basement membrane matrix is also within the invention. This method can include the step of adding a purified mAb that specifically binds to human IL-1.alpha. to a mixture including a basement membrane matrix and the human cell.
"Further within the invention is a method of inhibiting an IL-1.alpha.-induced increase in
"The invention additionally includes a method of tracking inflammation in a human subject previously subjected to the steps of: obtaining from the subject a first sample of peripheral blood mononuclear cells at a first time; contacting the first sample with a purified mAb that specifically binds to human IL-1.alpha.; and determining the percent of cells in the first sample that bind the monoclonal Ab. This method can include the steps of: (a) obtaining from the subject a second sample of peripheral blood mononuclear cells at a second time; (b) contacting the second sample with the purified mAb that specifically binds to human IL-1.alpha.; © determining the percent of cells in the second sample that bind the monoclonal Ab; and (d) comparing the percent of cells in the first sample that bind the mAb to the percent of cells in the second sample that bind the monoclonal Ab.
"In the foregoing methods, the purified mAb can be a human IgG1 mAb including a heavy chain covalently joined to a light chain, e.g., wherein the heavy chain includes the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 9 and the light chain includes the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:11.
"Another method within the invention features the steps of: (a) enriching a biological sample obtained from a human subject using a filter to separate molecules according to molecular weight into a first fraction including intact IgG complexed with IL-1.alpha. and second fraction including molecules less than 100 Kda; and (b) quantifying the amount of IL-1.alpha. in the first fraction.
"Yet another method within the invention features the steps of: (a) enriching a sample of plasma obtained from a human subject using a filter that separates molecules according to molecular weight into a first fraction including intact IgG complexed with IL-1.alpha. and second fraction including molecule less than 100 Kda; (b) adding the first fraction to a substrate including immobilized anti-human IgG Abs under conditions that allow IgG in the first fraction to specifically bind the anti-human IgG Abs immobilized on the substrate; © washing the substrate to remove material in the first fraction that does not specifically bind the immobilized anti-human IgG Abs; (d) contacting the substrate washed in step © with an Ab that specifically binds human IL-1.alpha. under conditions that allows the Ab that specifically binds human IL-1.alpha. to specifically bind any human IL-1.alpha. bound to the substrate; (e) washing the substrate to remove any of the Ab that specifically binds human IL-1.alpha. that is not bound to the substrate; and (f) quantifying the amount of Ab that specifically binds human IL-1.alpha. remaining bound to the substrate after step (e).
"Unless otherwise defined, all technical terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. Commonly understood definitions of biological terms can be found in Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th edition,
"The term 'specifically binds', as used herein, when referring to a polypeptide (including Abs) or receptor, refers to a binding reaction which is determinative of the presence of the protein or polypeptide or receptor in a heterogeneous population of proteins and other biologics. Thus, under designated conditions (e.g. immunoassay conditions in the case of an Ab), the specified ligand or Ab binds to its particular 'target' and does not bind in a significant amount to other proteins present in the sample or to other proteins to which the ligand or Ab may come in contact in an organism. Generally, a first molecule that 'specifically binds' a second molecule has an equilibrium affinity constant greater than about 10.sup.5 (e.g., 10.sup.6, 10.sup.7, 10.sup.8, 10.sup.9, 10.sup.10, 10.sup.11, and 10.sup.12 or more) liters/mole for that second molecule.
"When referring to a protein molecule such as an Ab, 'purified' means separated from components that naturally accompany such molecules. Typically, an Ab or protein is purified when it is at least about 10% (e.g., 9%, 10%, 20%, 30% 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 98%, 99%, 99.9%, and 100%), by weight, free from the non-Ab proteins or other naturally-occurring organic molecules with which it is naturally associated. Purity can be measured by any appropriate method, e.g., column chromatography, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or HPLC analysis. A chemically-synthesized protein or other recombinant protein produced in a cell type other than the cell type in which it naturally occurs is 'purified.'
"Although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the present invention, suitable methods and materials are described below. All applications and publications mentioned herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety. In the case of conflict, the present specification, including definitions will control. In addition, the particular embodiments discussed below are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting.
"The invention encompasses compositions and methods relating to fully human mAbs that include (i) an antigen-binding variable region that exhibits very high binding affinity for IL-1.alpha. and (ii) a constant region that is effective at both activating the complement system though C1q binding and binding to several different Fc receptors. The below described preferred embodiments illustrate adaptation of these compositions and methods. Nonetheless, from the description of these embodiments, other aspects of the invention can be made and/or practiced based on the description provided below.
"Methods involving conventional immunological and molecular biological techniques are described herein. Immunological methods (for example, assays for detection and localization of antigen-Ab complexes, immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and the like) are generally known in the art and described in methodology treatises such as Current Protocols in Immunology, Coligan et al., ed.,
"In one aspect, the invention features a fully human mAb that includes (i) an antigen-binding variable region that exhibits very high binding affinity for human IL-1.alpha. and (ii) a constant region that is effective at both activating the complement system though C1q binding and binding to several different Fc receptors. The human Ab is preferably an IgG1. The Ka of the Ab is preferably at least 1.times.10.sup.9 M.sup.-1 or greater (e.g., greater than 9.times.10.sup.10 M.sup.-1, 8.times.10.sup.10 M.sup.-1, 7.times.10.sup.10 M.sup.-1, 6.times.10.sup.10 M.sup.-1, 5.times.10.sup.10 M.sup.-1, 4.times.10.sup.10 M.sup.-1, 3.times.10.sup.10 M.sup.-1, 2.times.10.sup.10 M.sup.-1, or 1.times.10.sup.10 M.sup.-1).
"Because B lymphocytes which express Ig specific for human IL-1.alpha. occur naturally in human beings, a presently preferred method for raising mAbs is to first isolate such a B lymphocyte from a subject and then immortalize it so that it can be continuously replicated in culture. Subjects lacking large numbers of naturally occurring B lymphocytes which express Ig specific for human IL-1.alpha. may be immunized with one or more human IL-1.alpha. antigens to increase the number of such B lymphocytes. Human mAbs are prepared by immortalizing a human Ab secreting cell (e.g., a human plasma cell). See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,634,664.
"In an exemplary method, one or more (e.g., 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 1000, or more) human subjects (e.g., subjects not previously administered a human IL-1.alpha. vaccine) are screened for the presence of such human IL-1.alpha.-specific Ab in their blood. Those subjects that express the desired Ab can then be used as B lymphocyte donors. In one possible method, peripheral blood is obtained from a human donor that possesses B lymphocytes that express human IL-1.alpha.-specific Ab. Such B lymphocytes are then isolated from the blood sample, e.g., by cells sorting (e.g., fluorescence activated cell sorting, 'FACS'; or magnetic bead cell sorting) to select B lymphocytes expressing human IL-1.alpha.-specific Ig. These cells can then be immortalized by viral transformation (e.g., using EBV) or by fusion to another immortalized cell such as a human myeloma according to known techniques. The B lymphocytes within this population that express Ig specific for human IL-1.alpha. can then be isolated by limiting dilution methods (e.g., cells in wells of a microtiter plate that are positive for Ig specific for human IL-1.alpha. are selected and subcultured, and the process repeated until a desired clonal line can be isolated). See, e.g., Goding, Monoclonal Abs: Principles and Practice, pp. 59-103,
"Although immortalized B lymphocytes might be used in in vitro cultures to directly produce mAbs, in certain cases it might be desirable to use heterologous expression systems to produce mAbs. See, e.g., the methods described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/754,899. For example, the genes encoding an mAb specific for human IL-1.alpha. might be cloned and introduced into an expression vector (e.g., a plasmid-based expression vector) for expression in a heterologous host cell (e.g., CHO cells, COS cells, myeloma cells, and E. coli cells). Because Igs include heavy (H) and light (L) chains in an H2L2 configuration, the genes encoding each may be separately isolated and expressed in different vectors.
"Although generally less preferred, chimeric mAbs (e.g., 'humanized' mAbs), which are antigen-binding molecules having different portions derived from different animal species (e.g., variable region of a mouse Ig fused to the constant region of a human Ig), might be used in the invention. Such chimeric Abs can be prepared by methods known in the art.
"The mAbs described herein might be affinity matured to enhance or otherwise alter their binding specificity by known methods such as VH and VL domain shuffling (Marks et al. Bio/Technology 10:779-783, 1992), random mutagenesis of the hypervariable regions (HVRs) and/or framework residues (Barbas et al. Proc Nat. Acad. Sci.
"Preferably, to ensure that high titers of human IL-1.alpha.-specific mAb can be administered to a subject with minimal adverse effects, the mAb compositions of the invention are at least 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 99.9 or more percent by weight pure (excluding any excipients). The mAb compositions of the invention might include only a single type of mAb (i.e., one produced from a single clonal B lymphocyte line) or might include a mixture of two or more (e.g., 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or more) different types of mAbs. In addition to human IL-1.alpha. mAbs, the Ab compositions of the invention might also include other mAbs that specifically bind antigens other than human IL-1.alpha.
"To modify or enhance their function, the human IL-1.alpha. mAbs might be conjugated another molecule such as a cytotoxin or detectable label. A human IL-1.alpha. specific mAb might be conjugated with one or more cytotoxins to more effectively kill cells expressing IL-1.alpha.. Cytotoxins for use in the invention can be any cytotoxic agent (e.g., molecule that can kill a cell after contacting the cell) that can be conjugated to a human IL-1.alpha. specific mAb. Examples of cytotoxins include, without limitation, radionuclides (e.g., .sup.35S, .sup.14C, .sup.32P, .sup.125I, .sup.131I, .sup.90Y, .sup.89Zr, .sup.201Tl, .sup.186Re, .sup.188Re, .sup.57Cu, .sup.213Bi, and .sup.211At), conjugated radionuclides, and chemotherapeutic agents. Further examples of cytotoxins include, but are not limited to, antimetabolites (e.g., 5-fluorouricil (5-FU), methotrexate (MTX), fludarabine, etc.), anti-microtubule agents (e.g., vincristine, vinblastine, colchicine, taxanes (such as paclitaxel and docetaxel), etc.), alkylating agents (e.g., cyclophasphamide, melphalan, bischloroethylnitrosurea (BCNU), etc.), platinum agents (e.g., cisplatin (also termed cDDP), carboplatin, oxaliplatin, JM-216, CI-973, etc.), anthracyclines (e.g., doxorubicin, daunorubicin, etc.), antibiotic agents (e.g., mitomycin-C), topoisomerase inhibitors (e.g., etoposide, tenoposide, and camptothecins), or other cytotoxic agents such as ricin, diptheria toxin (DT), Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) A, PE40, abrin, saporin, pokeweed viral protein, ethidium bromide, glucocorticoid, anthrax toxin and others. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,932,188.
"The human IL-1.alpha. specific mAb can also be conjugated to a detectable label. Useful detectable labels in the present invention include biotin or streptavidin, magnetic beads, fluorescent dyes (e.g., fluorescein isothiocyanate, texas red, rhodamine, green fluorescent protein, and the like), radiolabels (e.g., .sup.3H, .sup.125I, .sup.35S, .sup.14C, .sup.32P, .sup.97Ru, .sup.67Ga, .sup.68Ga, or .sup.72As), radioopaque substances such as metals for radioimaging, paramagnetic agents for magnetic resonance imaging, enzymes (e.g., horseradish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase and others commonly used in an ELISA), and colorimetric labels such as colloidal gold or colored glass or plastic (e.g., polystyrene, polypropylene, latex, etc.) beads. Means of detecting such labels are well known to those of skill in the art. Thus, for example, radiolabels may be detected using photographic film or scintillation counters. Fluorescent markers may also be used and can be detected using a photodetector to detect emitted illumination. Enzymatic labels are typically detected by providing the enzyme with a substrate and detecting the reaction product produced by the action of the enzyme on the substrate, and colorimetric labels are detected by simply visualizing the colored label.
"The present invention also encompasses nucleic acid molecules encoding fully human mAbs specific for human IL-1.alpha.. Although the same nucleic acid molecule might encode both the heavy and light chains of a human IL-1.alpha.-specific mAb, two different nucleic acid molecules, one encoding the heavy chain and the other encoding the light chain might also be used. The amino acid sequences of three IgG1 mAbs specific for human IL-1.alpha. are presented herein. See SEQ ID NOs: 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. Exemplary nucleic acid molecules encoding these amino acid sequences are also described herein. See SEQ ID NOs: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. Any other suitable nucleic acid that encodes the amino acid sequences of the two described IgG1 mAbs or other mAbs within the invention might also be used.
"For production of mAbs, the nucleic acid molecules of the invention might be incorporated into an expression vector in an orientation wherein such nucleic acid molecules are operatively linked to expression control sequences such as transcriptional and translational control sequences. Examples of expression vectors include vectors derived from plasmids and vectors derived from viruses such as adenoviruses, adeno-associated viruses, and retroviruses. The nucleic acid molecules encoding a light chain and a heavy chain might be incorporated into a single vector or different vectors. The vectors of the invention might also include regulatory sequences such as promoters and/or enhancers (see, U.S. Pat. No. 5,168,062, U.S. Pat. No. 4,510,245 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,968,615), selectable markers, or sequences encoding affinity tags (for facilitating purification) or a detectable label.
"For production of mAbs, the vectors of the invention can be introduced into a suitable host cell, e.g., a prokaryotic cell such as a bacteria or, preferably, a eukaryotic cell such as mammalian, plant, or yeast host cell. Examples of methods for introducing heterologous polynucleotides into host cells include use of viral vectors, electroporation, encapsulation of the polynucleotide(s) in liposomes, dextran-mediated transfection, calcium phosphate precipitation, polybrene-mediated transfection, protoplast fusion, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, biolistic transformation, and direct microinjection of the DNA into nuclei. Mammalian cell lines are presently preferred for expression of mAbs from vectors. Examples of mammalian host cells include Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (e.g., the DG44 CHO cell line), HeLa cells, baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, African green monkey kidney cells (COS), human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (e.g., Hep G2), NS0 cells, SP2 cells, HEK-293T cells, 293 Freestyle cells, and NIH-3T3 cells. The mAbs of the invention might also be expressed in transgenic animals or plants. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,827,690; 5,756,687; 5,750,172; 5,741,957; 6,046,037; and 5,959,177.
"The invention provides a method for detecting a human IL-1.alpha.-expressing cell in a sample by contacting the cell with a human IL-1.alpha.-specific mAb and detecting the mAb bound to the cell. The invention also provides a method for killing a human IL-1.alpha.-expressing cell by contacting the cell with a human IL-1.alpha.-specific mAb. Such killing can be accomplished by complement-mediated killing, Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, or Ab-mediated delivery of a cytotoxin. The Abs described herein have also been shown to be useful for other methods.
"For example, MABp1 has been to reduce IL-1.alpha. induced ICAM1 and E-selectin expression on endothelial cells. MABp1 has also been shown to be used in immunoassays for detecting and quantifying IL-1.alpha. in a biological sample."
For more information, see this patent application: Simard, John. NUCLEIC ACIDS ENCODING a HUMAN MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY THAT SPECIFICALLY BINDS TO IL-1a. Filed
Keywords for this news article include: Antibodies, Therapy, Peptides, CHO Cells, Cell Line, E-Selectin, Amino Acids, CD Antigens, Lymphocytes, Fc Receptors,
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