Foreign navies have a strong presence around
Warlords, religious groups and clans have been fighting for control of
This suggested the behaviour of clan leaders in
"Local communities support pirates when there isn't a better alternative income stream," said Federico Varese, a co-author of the report based at the University Oxford.
"By improving the infrastructure of
"As the city regained its importance as a major trading port for livestock and an import centre for the wider region, pirates were no longer tolerated - pirate hostages were freed and pirates were imprisoned by the local clan leaders," the study adds.
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