News Column

BSD MEDICAL CORP FILES (8-K) Disclosing Other Events

June 27, 2014

Item 8.01 Other Events.

The following information updates prior disclosures of the company with respect to government regulation and related risk factors and should be read in conjunction with our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including, without limitation, our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the fiscal year ended August 31, 2013, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K.

Government Regulations Section

Domestic Regulation of Our Products and Business - Food and Drug Administration

Our research, development and clinical programs, as well as our manufacturing and marketing operations, are subject to extensive regulation in the United States and other countries. Most notably, all of our products sold in the United States are subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, or the FDCA, as implemented and enforced by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA. Certain of our products sold in the United States require FDA clearance to market under Section 510(k) of the FDCA. FDA governs the following activities that we perform or that are performed on our behalf, to ensure that medical products distributed domestically or exported internationally are safe and effective for their intended uses:

product design, development and manufacture; product safety, testing, labeling and storage; record keeping procedures; product marketing, sales and distribution; and ost-marketing surveillance, complaint handling, medical device reporting, reporting of deaths, serious injuries or device malfunctions and repair or recall of products.



There are numerous FDA regulatory requirements governing the approval or clearance and marketing of our products. These include:

product listing and establishment registration, which helps facilitate FDA inspections and other regulatory action; Quality System Regulation, or QSR, which requires manufacturers, including third-party manufacturers, to follow stringent design, testing, control, documentation and other quality assurance procedures during all aspects of the manufacturing process; labeling regulations and FDA prohibitions against the promotion of products for uncleared, unapproved or off-label use or indication; clearance or approval of product modifications that could significantly affect safety or efficacy or that would constitute a major change in intended use of a cleared product; approval of product modifications that affect the safety or effectiveness of an approved product; medical device reporting regulations, which require that manufacturers comply with FDA requirements to report if their device may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury, or has malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if the malfunction of the device or a similar device were to recur; post-approval restrictions or conditions, including post-approval study commitments; post-market surveillance regulations, which apply when necessary to protect the public health or to provide additional safety and effectiveness data for the device; and notices of correction or removal and recall regulations. 1



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We have registered our facility with the FDA as a medical device manufacturer. The FDA has broad post-market and regulatory enforcement powers. We are subject to announced and unannounced inspections by the FDA to determine our compliance with the QSR and other regulations and these inspections may include the manufacturing facilities of our suppliers.

FDA's premarket clearance and approval requirements. Unless an exemption applies, before we can commercially distribute medical devices in the United States, depending on the type of device, we must obtain either prior 510(k) clearance or premarket approval, or PMA, from the FDA, unless a specific exemption applies. The FDA classifies medical devices into one of three classes:

Class I devices, which are subject to only general controls (e.g., labeling, medical devices reporting, and prohibitions against adulteration and misbranding) and, in some cases, to the 510(k) premarket clearance requirements; Class II devices, generally requiring 510(k) premarket clearance before they may be commercially marketed in the United States; and Class III devices, consisting of devices deemed by the FDA to pose the greatest risk, such as life-sustaining, life-supporting or implantable devices, or devices deemed not substantially equivalent to a predicate device, generally requiring submission of a PMA supported by clinical trial data.



510(k) clearance pathway

When a 510(k) clearance is required, we must submit a premarket notification demonstrating that our proposed device is substantially equivalent to a previously cleared 510(k) device or a device that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976 for which the FDA has not yet called for the submission of PMAs. By regulation, the FDA is required to clear or deny a 510(k) premarket notification within 90 days of submission of the application. As a practical matter, clearance may take longer. The FDA may require further information, including clinical data, to make a determination regarding substantial equivalence.

Any modification to a 510(k)-cleared device that would constitute a major change in its intended use, or any change that could significantly affect the safety or effectiveness of the device, requires a new 510(k) clearance and may even, in some circumstances, require a PMA, if the change raises complex or novel scientific issues or the product has a new intended use. The FDA requires every manufacturer to make the determination regarding the need for a new 510(k) submission in the first instance, but the FDA may review any manufacturer's decision. We have modified our devices since they received the FDA clearance. If the FDA were to disagree with any of our determinations that changes did not require a new 510(k), it could require us to cease marketing and distribution and/or recall the modified device until 510(k) clearance or PMA approval is obtained. If the FDA requires us to seek 510(k) clearance or PMA approval for any modifications, we may be required to cease marketing and/or recall the modified device, if already in distribution, until 510(k) clearance or PMA approval is obtained and we could be subject to significant regulatory fines or penalties.

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There is no guarantee that the FDA will grant 510(k) clearance or PMA approval of our future products and failure to obtain necessary clearances or approvals for our future products would adversely affect our ability to grow our business. Delays in receipt or failure to receive clearances or approvals, the loss of previously received clearances or approvals, or the failure to comply with existing or future regulatory requirements could reduce our sales, profitability and future growth prospects.

Premarket approval (PMA) pathway

A PMA must be submitted to the FDA if the device cannot be cleared through the 510(k) process. A PMA must be supported by extensive data, including but not limited to, technical, preclinical, clinical trials, manufacturing and labeling to demonstrate to the FDA's satisfaction the safety and effectiveness of the device for its intended use. During the review period, the FDA will typically request additional information or clarification of the information already provided. Also, an advisory panel of experts from outside the FDA may be convened to review and evaluate the application and provide recommendations to the FDA as to the approvability of the device. The FDA may or may not accept the panel's recommendation. In addition, the FDA will generally conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities to ensure compliance with the QSRs.

New PMAs or PMA supplements are required for modifications that affect the safety or effectiveness of the device, including, for example, certain types of modifications to the device's indication for use, manufacturing process, labeling and design. PMA supplements often require submission of the same type of information as a PMA, except that the supplement is limited to information needed to support any changes from the device covered by the original PMA and may not require as extensive clinical data or the convening of an advisory panel. There is no guarantee that the FDA will grant PMA approval of our future products and failure to obtain necessary approvals for our future products would adversely affect our ability to grow our business. Delays in receipt or failure to receive approvals, the loss of previously received approvals, or the failure to comply with existing or future regulatory requirements could reduce our sales, profitability and future growth prospects.

Humanitarian Device Exemption (HDE) Pathway

In order for a device to be eligible for an HDE, it must be intended for use in a qualifying target patient population of less than 4,000 patients per year for which there is no other comparable device available to treat the condition. This qualifying target patient population must be approved by the FDA. The FDA's approval of an HDE to treat that qualifying patient population then requires demonstration that the device is safe for its intended application, that it is potentially effective, and that the probable benefits outweigh the associated risks, which is a lower standard than is applied to a PMA. Within the regulations for an HDE, if a device becomes available through the PMA or 510(k) pathway that addresses the same patient population as the HDE device, the HDE device may need to be withdrawn from the U.S. market. An approved HDE authorizes sales of the device to any hospital after Institutional Review Board review and approval by the hospital.

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Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are generally required to support a PMA application and are sometimes required for 510(k) clearance and HDE approval. Such trials generally require an investigational device exemption application, or IDE, approved in advance by the FDA for a specified number of patients and study sites, unless the product is deemed an nonsignificant risk device eligible for more abbreviated IDE requirements. Clinical trials are subject to extensive monitoring, recordkeeping and reporting requirements. Clinical trials must be conducted under the oversight of an institutional review board, or IRB, for the relevant clinical trial sites and must comply with FDA regulations, including but not limited to those relating to good clinical practices. To conduct a clinical trial, we also are required to obtain the patients' informed consent in form and substance that complies with both FDA requirements and state and federal privacy and human subject protection regulations. We, the FDA or the IRB could suspend a clinical trial at any time for various reasons, including a belief that the risks to study subjects outweigh the anticipated benefits. Even if a trial is completed, the results of clinical testing may not adequately demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the device or may otherwise not be sufficient to obtain FDA approval to market the product in the United States.

Pervasive and continuing regulation

After a device is placed on the market, numerous regulatory requirements apply. These include:

Product listing and establishment registration, which helps facilitate FDA inspections and other regulatory action; Quality System Regulation, or QSR, which requires manufacturers, including third-party manufacturers, to follow stringent design, testing, control, documentation and other quality assurance procedures during all aspects of the manufacturing process; labeling regulations and FDA prohibitions against the promotion of products for uncleared, unapproved or off-label use or indication; clearance of product modifications that could significantly affect safety or efficacy or that would constitute a major change in intended use of one of our cleared devices; approval of product modifications that affect the safety or effectiveness of one of our approved devices; medical device reporting regulations, which require that manufacturers comply with FDA requirements to report if their device may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury, or has malfunctioned in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if the malfunction of the device or a similar device were to recur; post-approval restrictions or conditions, including post-approval study commitments; post-market surveillance regulations, which apply when necessary to protect the public health or to provide additional safety and effectiveness data for the device; the FDA's recall authority, whereby it can ask, or under certain conditions order, device manufacturers to recall from the market a product that is in violation of governing laws and regulations; regulations pertaining to voluntary recalls; and notices of corrections or removals. 4



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Advertising and promotion of medical devices, in addition to being regulated by the FDA, are also regulated by the Federal Trade Commission and by state regulatory and enforcement authorities. Recently, promotional activities for FDA-regulated products of other companies have been the subject of enforcement action brought under healthcare reimbursement laws and consumer protection statutes. In addition, under the federal Lanham Act and similar state laws, competitors and others can initiate litigation relating to advertising claims. In addition, we are required to meet regulatory requirements in countries outside the United States, which can change rapidly with relatively short notice. If the FDA determines that our promotional materials or training constitutes promotion of an unapproved use, it could request that we modify our training or promotional materials or subject us to regulatory or enforcement actions, including the issuance of an untitled letter, a warning letter, injunction, seizure, civil fine or criminal penalties. It is also possible that other federal, state or foreign enforcement authorities might take action if they consider our promotional or training materials to constitute promotion of an unapproved use, which could result in significant fines or penalties under other statutory authorities, such as laws prohibiting false claims for reimbursement. In that event, our reputation could be damaged and adoption of the products would be impaired.

Furthermore, our products could be subject to voluntary recall if we or the FDA determine, for any reason, that our products pose a risk of injury or are otherwise defective. Moreover, the FDA can order a mandatory recall if there is a reasonable probability that our device would cause serious adverse health consequences or death.

The FDA has broad post-market and regulatory enforcement powers. We are subject to unannounced inspections by the FDA to determine our compliance with the QSR and other regulations, and these inspections may include the manufacturing facilities of some of our subcontractors. Failure by us or by our suppliers to comply with applicable regulatory requirements can result in enforcement action by the FDA or other regulatory authorities, which may result in sanctions including, but not limited to:

untitled letters, warning letters, fines, injunctions, consent decrees and civil penalties; unanticipated expenditures to address or defend such actions customer notifications for repair, replacement, refunds; recall, detention or seizure of our products; operating restrictions or partial suspension or total shutdown of production; refusing or delaying our requests for 510(k) clearance or premarket approval of new products or modified products; operating restrictions; withdrawing 510(k) clearances on PMA approvals that have already been granted; refusal to grant export approval for our products; or criminal prosecution. 5



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If the FDA determines that our promotional materials or training constitutes promotion of an unapproved use, it could request that we modify our training or promotional materials or subject us to regulatory or enforcement actions, including the issuance of an untitled letter, a warning letter, injunction, seizure, civil fine or criminal penalties. It is also possible that other federal, state or foreign enforcement authorities might take action if they consider our promotional or training materials to constitute promotion of an unapproved use, which could result in significant fines or penalties under other statutory authorities, such as laws prohibiting false claims for reimbursement. In that event, our reputation could be damaged and adoption of the products would be impaired.

RISK FACTORS U.S. Regulatory - FDA



If we fail to maintain regulatory approvals and clearances, or are unable to obtain, or experience significant delays in obtaining, FDA clearances or approvals for our future products or product enhancements, our ability to commercially distribute and market these products could suffer.

Our products are subject to rigorous regulation by the FDA and numerous other federal, state and foreign governmental authorities. The process of obtaining regulatory clearances or approvals to market a medical device can be costly and time consuming, and we may not be able to obtain these clearances or approvals on a timely basis, if at all. In particular, the FDA permits commercial distribution of a new medical device only after the device has received clearance under Section 510(k) of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, or is the subject of an approved premarket approval application, or PMA unless the device is specifically exempt from those requirements. In addition, certain devices can be distributed under an HDE, rather than a PMA.

The FDA will clear marketing of a lower risk medical device through the 510(k) process if the manufacturer demonstrates that the new product is substantially equivalent to other 510(k)-cleared products. High risk devices deemed to pose the greatest risk, such as life-sustaining, life-supporting, or implantable devices, or devices not deemed substantially equivalent to a previously cleared device, require the approval of a PMA. The PMA process is more costly, lengthy and uncertain than the 510(k) clearance process. A PMA application must be supported by extensive data, including, but not limited to, technical, preclinical, clinical trial, manufacturing and labeling data, to demonstrate to the FDA's satisfaction the safety and efficacy of the device for its intended use.

In order for a device to be eligible for an HDE, it must be intended for use in a qualifying target patient population of less than 4,000 patients per year for which there is no other comparable device available to treat the condition. This qualifying target patient population must be approved by the FDA. The FDA's approval of an HDE to treat that qualifying patient population then requires demonstration that the device is safe for its intended application, that it is potentially effective, and that the probable benefits outweigh the associated risks, which is a lower standard than is applied to a PMA. Within the regulations for an HDE, if a device becomes available through the PMA process that addresses the same patient population as the HDE device, the HDE device may need to be withdrawn from the U.S. market. An approved HDE authorizes sales of the device to any hospital after Institutional Review Board review and approval by the hospital.

Our currently commercialized BSD-200 and Microthermx Microwave Ablation System have been cleared through the 510(k) process. Our BSD-500 is the subject of an approved PMA application. Our BSD-2000 System is the subject of an approved HDE. Our HDE for the BSD-2000 could be withdrawn by FDA if the target patient population exceeds 4000 patients in a given year or if a competitive device receives PMA approval that addresses the same patient population as the BSD-2000.

Our failure to comply with U.S. federal, state and foreign governmental regulations could lead to the issuance of warning letters or untitled letters, the imposition of injunctions, suspensions or loss of regulatory clearance or approvals, product recalls, termination of distribution, product seizures or civil penalties. In the most extreme cases, criminal sanctions or closure of our manufacturing facility are possible.

Modifications to our products may require new regulatory clearances or approvals or may require us to recall or cease marketing our products until clearances or approvals are obtained.

Modifications to our products may require new regulatory approvals or clearances, including 510(k) clearances, premarket approvals, or HDE approvals, or require us to recall or cease marketing the modified devices until these clearances or approvals are obtained. The FDA requires device manufacturers to initially make and document a determination of whether or not a modification requires a new approval, supplement or clearance. A manufacturer may determine that a modification could not significantly affect safety or efficacy and does not represent a major change in its intended use, so that no new 510(k) clearance is necessary. However, the FDA can review a manufacturer's decision and may disagree. The FDA may also on its own initiative determine that a new clearance or approval is required. We have made modifications to our products in the past and may make additional modifications in the future that we believe do not or will not require additional clearances or approvals. If the FDA disagrees and requires new clearances or approvals for the modifications, we may be required to recall and to stop marketing our products as modified, which could require us to redesign our products and harm our operating results. In these circumstances, we may be subject to significant enforcement actions.

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If a manufacturer determines that a modification to an FDA-cleared device could significantly affect its safety or efficacy, or would constitute a major change in its intended use, then the manufacturer must file for a new 510(k) clearance or possibly a premarket approval application. For PMA approved products, any change that affects the safety or effectiveness of the device requires the approval of PMA Supplement. Depending on the type of change, there are different PMA Supplements ranging from 30-Day Notices to full 180-Day Supplements. Where we determine that modifications to our products require a new 510(k) clearance, premarket approval, or HDE application, we may not be able to obtain those additional clearances or approvals for the modifications or additional indications in a timely manner, or at all. Obtaining clearances and approvals can be a time consuming process, and delays in obtaining required future clearances or approvals would adversely affect our ability to introduce new or enhanced products in a timely manner, which in turn would harm our future growth.

There is no guarantee that the FDA will grant 510(k) clearance or PMA approval of our future products and failure to obtain necessary clearances or approvals for our future products would adversely affect our ability to grow our business.

Some of our new products may require FDA clearance of a 510(k). Other products may require the approval of a PMA. In addition some of our new products may require clinical trials to support regulatory approval and we may not successfully complete these clinical trials. The FDA may not approve or clear these products for the indications that are necessary or desirable for successful commercialization. Indeed, the FDA may refuse our requests for 510(k) clearance or premarket approval of new products. Failure to receive clearance or approval for our new products would have an adverse effect on our ability to expand our business.

Clinical trials necessary to support a PMA application will be expensive and will require the enrollment of large numbers of patients, and suitable patients may be difficult to identify and recruit. Delays or failures in our clinical trials will prevent us from commercializing any modified or new products and will adversely affect our business, operating results and prospects.

Initiating and completing clinical trials necessary to support a future PMA application or to obtain additional safety and efficacy data beyond that typically required for a 510(k) clearance will be time consuming and expensive and the outcome uncertain. Moreover, the results of early clinical trials are not necessarily predictive of future results, and any product we advance into clinical trials may not have favorable results in later clinical trials.

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Clinical trials conducted in the United States, generally require an investigational device exemption application, or IDE, approved in advance by the FDA for a specified number of patients and study sites, unless the product is deemed an nonsignificant risk device eligible for more abbreviated IDE requirements. Clinical trials are subject to extensive monitoring, recordkeeping and reporting requirements. Clinical trials must be conducted under the oversight of an institutional review board, or IRB, for the relevant clinical trial sites and must comply with FDA regulations, including but not limited to those relating to good clinical practices. To conduct a clinical trial, we also are required to obtain the patients' informed consent that complies with FDA requirements, state and federal privacy regulations and human subject protection regulations.

Conducting successful clinical studies will require the enrollment of large numbers of patients, and suitable patients may be difficult to identify and recruit. Patient enrollment in clinical trials and completion of patient participation and follow-up depends on many factors, including the size of the patient population, the nature of the trial protocol, the attractiveness of, or the discomforts and risks associated with, the treatments received by enrolled subjects, the availability of appropriate clinical trial investigators, support staff, and proximity of patients to clinical sites and able to comply with the eligibility and exclusion criteria for participation in the clinical trial and patient compliance. For example, patients may be discouraged from enrolling in our clinical trials if the trial protocol requires them to undergo extensive post-treatment procedures or follow-up to assess the safety and effectiveness of our products or if they determine that the treatments received under the trial protocols are not attractive or involve unacceptable risks or discomforts. Patients may also not participate in our clinical trials if they choose to participate in contemporaneous clinical trials of competitive products. In addition, patients participating in clinical trials may die before completion of the trial or suffer adverse medical events unrelated to investigational products.

Development of sufficient and appropriate clinical protocols to demonstrate safety and efficacy are required and we may not adequately develop such protocols to support clearance and approval. Further, the FDA may require us to submit data on a greater number of patients than we originally anticipated and/or for a longer follow-up period or change the data collection requirements . . .


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