Our fiscal 2014 financial information is summarized in this Management's Discussion and Analysis, the Consolidated Financial Statements, and related Notes. The following background is provided to readers to more fully understand our Company's financial information.
Pattersonoperates a distribution business in three complementary markets: dental supply, veterinary supply and rehabilitation supply. Historically, our strategy for growth focused on internal growth and the acquisition of smaller distributors and businesses offering related products and services to the dental market. In fiscal 2002, we expanded our strategy to take advantage of a parallel growth opportunity in the veterinary supply market by acquiring the assets of J. A. Webster, Inc. July 9, 2001, which we operated as Webster Veterinary Supply (Webster) until January 1, 2013. Webster is now known as Patterson Veterinary. Pattersonadded a third component to our business platform in fiscal 2004 when we entered the rehabilitation supply market with the acquisition of AbilityOne Products Corp.("AbilityOne") on September 12, 2003. AbilityOne is now known as Patterson Medical. Operating margins of the veterinary business are considerably lower than the dental and rehabilitation supply businesses. While operating expenses run at a lower rate in the veterinary business, their gross margin is substantially lower due generally to the low margins on the pharmaceutical products that are distributed. We operate with a 52-53 week accounting convention with our fiscal year ending on the last Saturday in April. Fiscal years 2012, 2013 and 2014 ending April 28, 2012, April 27, 2013and April 26, 2014, respectively included 52 weeks. There are several important aspects of Patterson'sbusiness that are useful in analyzing it, including: (1) market growth in the various markets in which we operate; (2) internal growth; (3) growth through acquisition; and (4) continued focus on controlling costs and enhancing efficiency. Management defines "internal growth" as the increase in net sales from period to period, excluding the impact of changes in currency exchange rates, and excluding the net sales, for a period of twelve months following the transaction date, of businesses we have acquired. NVS Acquisition. On August 16, 2013 Patterson Companies, Inc.completed the acquisition of all the outstanding stock of National Veterinary Services Limited("NVS") from Dechra Pharmaceuticals, PLC ("NVS Acquisition"). NVS is the largest veterinary products distributor in the United Kingdom. Total cash consideration paid for NVS was £91.2 million (approximately $142.7 million). The acquisition was accretive to earnings by $0.04per diluted share for the fiscal year ended April 26, 2014. The NVS business has lower gross margins and operating expenses than our historical businesses. Medical Restructuring. On August 22, 2013 Patterson Companies, Inc.announced a plan to divest certain non-core product lines in its medical segment ("Medical Restructuring"). As a result of the plan to dispose of these product lines, we incurred a pre-tax restructuring charge of $15 millionor approximately $0.13per diluted share. $14 millionof the restructuring charge were non-cash losses on disposal of assets. We estimate that disposing of these product lines will generate operational savings of approximately $2 millionbeginning in fiscal year 2015. Information Technology Initiative. We estimate that we will invest $45 millionto $55 millionover the next four years to transform our information systems ("Information Technology Initiative"). We estimate that approximately half of this amount will be capitalized over the project life. An incremental $10 millionwas expensed in fiscal 2014. 40
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Results of Operations
The following table summarizes our consolidated results of operations over the past three fiscal years as a percent of sales:
2014 2013 2012 Net sales 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % Cost of sales 70.5 % 67.3 % 67.1 % Gross margin 29.5 % 32.7 % 32.9 % Operating expenses 21.0 % 23.0 % 22.8 % Operating income 8.5 % 9.7 % 10.1 % Other income, net 0.1 % 0.1 % 0.1 % Interest expense 0.9 % 1.0 % 0.9 % Income before taxes 7.7 % 8.8 % 9.3 % Income taxes 2.8 % 3.0 % 3.3 % Net income 4.9 % 5.8 % 6.0 %
Fiscal 2014 Compared to Fiscal 2013
Net Sales. Consolidated net sales in fiscal 2014 were
$4,063.7 million, an increase of 11.7%, from $3,637.2 millionin fiscal 2013. The growth in sales includes an 11.3% contribution from acquisitions and a 0.4% unfavorable impact of changes in foreign currency translation rates. Dental segment sales in fiscal 2014 rose 0.1% to $2,382.1 millionfrom $2,380.0 millionin fiscal 2013. The growth included a 0.1% contribution from acquisitions and a 0.5% unfavorable impact from changes in foreign currency translation rates. Consumable sales increased 1.3%. Dental equipment and software sales decreased 1.8% in fiscal 2014 to $828.9 milliondue to strong CEREC sales in the prior year following a successful trade-up program, as well as a decrease in revenues from digital radiography products although unit volumes increased. The average selling price per unit in the latter category decline in fiscal 2014 as the focus shifted from higher capacity product to more mid-line product in the extraoral categories. Other dental sales, consisting primarily of technical service parts and labor, software support services and artificial teeth, increased 0.3% in fiscal 2014. Veterinary segment sales grew 59.3% to $1,203.0 million. Acquisitions added 55.8% to sales in fiscal 2014. Excluding the NVS acquisition, consumables increased 2.5%, equipment and software sales increased 20.3% and other increased 15.5%. We believe that our equipment and technology strategy, which includes enhancing our infrastructure and becoming a national technical service provider, is driving the increases in equipment, software and services. Medical segment sales of $478.6 milliondecreased 4.7% from fiscal 2013, primarily as a result of reduced sales from the non-core product lines that were divested in the current year. Fiscal 2014 sales were also impacted by continuing challenges in our international business due to austerity measures implemented over healthcare costs by foreign governments. Foreign exchange rate changes had an unfavorable impact to current year sales growth of 0.2%. Gross Margin. Consolidated gross margin decreased 320 basis points from the prior year to 29.5%. The NVS Acquisition accounts for 250 basis points of the decrease and the Medical Restructuring accounts for 10 basis points resulting in a comparable decrease of 60 basis points from prior year of 32.7%. Veterinary gross margin decreased 430 basis points mainly due to the acquisition of NVS. Operating Expenses. The consolidated operating expense ratio of 21.0% decreased 200 basis points from prior year at 23.0%. The NVS Acquisition accounts for 190 basis points of the decrease. The incremental 41
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expenses from the Information Technology Initiative increased operating expense by 30 basis points and the Medical Restructuring increased operating expenses by 30 basis points resulting in a comparable decrease of 70 basis points from Prior Period of 23.0%. Operating Income. Current year operating income was
$345.8 million, or 8.5% of net sales. In the prior year, operating income was $354.5 million, or 9.7% of net sales. The decrease in the operating margin is due primarily to the NVS Acquisition, the Medical Restructuring and the incremental expenses from the Information Technology Initiative, which combined reduced the operating margin by 140 basis points, resulting in a comparable operating margin rate of 9.9%. Other (Expense) Income, Net. Net other expense was $32.8 millionin the current year, a decrease of $0.5 millionfrom the prior year. Net other expense is comprised primarily of interest expense, partly offset by interest income. Foreign currency had a negative impact of $2.1 millioncompared to $1.5 millionin the prior year. Interest income of $5.0 millionwas up from $4.5 millionin the prior year. Income Taxes. The effective income tax rate was 35.9% in fiscal 2014 as compared to 34.5% in fiscal 2013. The effective tax rate increased in fiscal 2014 as compared to fiscal 2013 due to certain onetime benefits that were included in the prior year rate in addition to the unfavorable impact of the Medical Restructuring in the current year. Net Income and Earnings Per Share. Net income decreased 4.6% to $200.6 million, compared to $210.3 millionin the prior year. The decline is the result of the restructuring undertaken in the Medical segment and the incremental expenses incurred in the information technology transformation mitigated by the earnings contribution from NVS. Earnings per diluted share were $1.97in the current year compared to $2.03in the prior year. Excluding the restructuring costs, earnings per diluted share were $2.10. The impact on earnings per share from the incremental information technology expenditures was $0.07Diluted shares outstanding in the current year were 101,643,000 compared to 103,807,000 in the prior year. The decrease in the share count is due to share repurchase activity. The current year's cash dividend was $0.68per common share compared to $0.58in the prior year.
Fiscal 2013 Compared to Fiscal 2012
Net Sales. Consolidated net sales in fiscal 2013 were
Dental segment sales in fiscal 2013 rose 4.0% to
$2,380.0 millionfrom $2,287.9 millionin fiscal 2012. The growth included a 0.2% contribution from acquisitions and a 0.1% unfavorable impact form changes in foreign currency translation rates. Consumable sales increased 1.3%. Dental equipment and software sales increased 9.8% in fiscal 2013 to $843.9 milliondue to strong CEREC sales, as well as an increase in sales of digital radiography products. Other dental sales, consisting primarily of technical service parts and labor, software support services and artificial teeth, increased 2.8% in fiscal 2013. Veterinary segment sales grew 2.8% to $755.2 milliondespite the change in a nutritional distribution arrangement that reduced sales by 5.8%. Sales of consumables were 3.4% higher in fiscal 2013, or over 9% after adjusting for the impact of the change in the nutritional agreement. Acquisitions added 0.9% to sales in fiscal 2013. We have been investing in the Veterinary segment's equipment and technical service offering to expand this unit's full-service platform. Medical segment sales of $502.0 milliondecreased 2.2% from fiscal 2012. Acquisitions, contributed 1.6% of sales growth. The negative impact from foreign currency translation rates was 0.6% in fiscal 2013. We believe that continued uncertainty surrounding the U.S. health care system and the overall economy as well as continued austerity efforts in the United Kingdomare adversely affecting this segment. 42
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Gross Margin. Consolidated gross margin was 32.7% in fiscal 2013 and 32.9% in fiscal 2012. The Dental segment's gross margin decreased 30 basis points to 35.9% in fiscal 2013. This decrease is mainly due to sales mix as equipment growth outpaced consumable growth during the year and as the segment effectuated the change in the CEREC product line, which negatively impacted margins. Gross margin of the Veterinary segment increased 60 basis points to 18.9% in fiscal 2013 due primarily to the change in the nutritional distribution arrangement, which carried a lower than average margin. The Medical segment's gross margin declined 30 basis points to 38.7%, as a result of product mix. Operating Expenses. The consolidated operating expense ratio in fiscal 2013 was 23.0%, or 20 basis points higher than fiscal 2012. The Dental segment's operating expense ratio increased 10 basis points. The Medical segment's operating expenses as a percent of sales were 80 basis points higher in the current fiscal year, due to the integration expense in the Australian operations of the Surgical Synergies acquisition. The Veterinary segment's operating expense ratio increased 40 basis points, mainly due to the reduced revenue from the nutritional agreement change and the addition of service technicians during the period.
Operating Income. Operating income totaled
Interest Expense. Interest expense was
$36.4 millionin fiscal 2013 compared to $30.3 millionin fiscal 2012. This increase is due to the issuance of $325 millionof debt in the third quarter of the fiscal 2012 offset slightly by the repayment of $125 millionof debt that matured late in fiscal 2013.
Other Income, net. Other income, net of other expenses, was
Income Taxes. The effective income tax rate was 34.5% in fiscal 2013 as compared to 35.5% in fiscal 2012. The effective tax rate decreased in fiscal 2013 primarily due to an increase in the deductible dividends paid on shares held by our Employee Stock Ownership Plan and deductions claimed for domestic manufacturing activities. Net Income and Earnings Per Share. Net income decreased 1.2% to
$210.3 millionin fiscal 2013. Earnings per diluted share and dilutive shares outstanding were $2.03and 103.8 million, respectively, in fiscal 2013 and $1.92and 110.8 million, respectively, in fiscal 2012.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Patterson'soperating cash flow has been our principal source of liquidity in the last three fiscal years. During fiscal 2014 and 2012, we used our revolving credit facility periodically as a source of liquidity in addition to operating cash flow. Operating activities generated cash of $195.8 millionin fiscal 2014, compared to $299.2 millionin fiscal 2013 and $321.2 millionin fiscal 2012. Our operating activities are primarily driven by net income. Capital expenditures were $40.3, $22.0and $29.7 millionin fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Significant expenditures in these years included the Information Technology Initiative, purchase and expansion of distribution facilities to accommodate multiple business units and the construction of a new facility for the Patterson Technology Center. In fiscal 2012, a project to build-out a purchased building in Indianathat serves as a distribution facility used by all three business units was completed. This facility replaced several smaller distribution facilities. In addition, the Patterson Technology Centerin Illinoiswas completed in fiscal 2012. This 100,000 square foot state-of-the-art facility replaced a nearby-leased location and opened in the second quarter of fiscal 2012. 43
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We expect to invest approximately
$45 millionin capital expenditures during fiscal 2015, our main investment is in information systems. We estimate that we will invest $45 millionto $55 millionover the next four years to transform our information systems. We estimate that approximately half of this amount with be capitalized over the project life. Cash used for acquisitions and equity investments totaled $145.8 millionin fiscal 2014, $14.6 millionin fiscal 2013 and $22.6 millionin fiscal 2012. The majority of the cash used for acquisitions in fiscal 2014 related to the acquisitions of National Veterinary Supply and Mercer Mastery. In fiscal 2013, the majority of the cash used for acquisitions related to the acquisitions of Iowa Dental Supply and Universal Vaporizer Support. The majority of the cash used for acquisitions in fiscal 2012 related to the acquisitions of American Veterinary Supply Corporationand Surgical Synergies.
In fiscal 2014, we invested in three time deposits with total principal of
In fiscal 2013, we retired
$125 millionof debt. In fiscal 2012, we entered into a new debt agreement for $325 million; see Note 7 of the Consolidated Financial Statements, "Long-term Debt" for further information. Total dividends paid in fiscal 2014, fiscal 2013 and fiscal 2012 were $85.7 million, $43.7 millionand $54.7 million, respectively. We expect to continue to pay a quarterly cash dividend for the foreseeable future. In addition, during fiscal 2014, we repurchased approximately 2.4 million shares of common stock for approximately $96 million. In fiscal 2013, we repurchased approximately 5.2 million shares of common stock for approximately $180 million. In fiscal 2012, we repurchased approximately 12.0 million shares of common stock for approximately $362 million. Under a share repurchase plan authorized by the Board of Directors, as of March 19, 2013, Pattersonmay repurchase up to 25 million shares of its common stock. This authorization remains in effect through March 19, 2018. Management expects funds generated from operations and existing cash to be sufficient to meet our working capital needs for the next fiscal year. We have $265 millionin cash and cash equivalents of which $190 millionis in foreign bank accounts. None of our cash balances are subject to any withdrawal restrictions. See Note 11, "Income Taxes" for further information regarding our intention to permanently reinvest these funds. We have a $250 millionnote due in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2015. We have both the intent and ability to refinance at that time, therefore we have classified this balance as long term debt on the balance sheet as of April 26, 2014. We expect to continue to obtain liquidity from the sale of equipment finance contracts. Patterson'sexisting debt facilities are believed to be adequate as a supplement to internally generated cash flows to fund anticipated expansion plans and strategic initiatives, including acquisitions. In addition, we have a $300 millionrevolving credit facility which expires in fiscal 2017. Pattersonsells a significant portion of our finance contracts (see below) to a commercial paper funded conduit managed by a third party bank, and as a result, commercial paper is indirectly an important source of liquidity for Patterson. Pattersonis allowed to participate in the conduit due to the quality of our finance contracts and our financial strength. Cash flows could be impaired if our financial strength diminishes to a level that precluded us from taking part in this facility or other similar facilities. Also, market conditions outside of our control could adversely affect the ability for us to sell the contracts.
Customer Financing Arrangements
Pattersonis a party to two arrangements under which we have sold finance contracts received from our customers to outside financial institutions. These arrangements provide sources of liquidity for us that would have to be replaced should any of the current financial institutions be unable or unwilling to continue under them. 44
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December 2010, the Receivables Purchase Agreement was amended to make The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Ltd.("BTMU") the managing agent. As of April 26, 2014, the total capacity under this agreement is $500 million, which includes $300 millionwith BTMU and the remainder with Royal Bank of Canada (RBC). In August 2011, Fifth Third Bank(FTB) replaced U.S. Bank National Associationas the agent under the Contract Purchase Agreement, which has a capacity of $100 millionas of April 26, 2014. Our financing business is described in further detail in Note 6, "Customer Financing." of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K. Note 6, discusses the nature and business purpose of the arrangements and the activity under each arrangement during fiscal 2014, including the amount of finance contracts sold and the holdback receivable owed to us.
A summary of
Patterson'scontractual obligations as of April 26, 2014follows (in thousands): Payment due by year Less than More than Contractual Obligations Total 1 year 1-3 years 3-5 years 5 years Long-Term Debt $ 725,000 $ 250,000$ - 210,000 265,000 Interest on Long-Term Debt 141,063 32,984 40,117 31,492 36,470 Operating Leases 77,531 18,981 29,304 18,285 10,961 Pattersonis unable to determine its contractual obligations by year related to the provisions of ASC Topic 740, "Income Taxes", as the ultimate amount or timing of settlement of its reserves for income taxes cannot be reasonably estimated. The total liability for unrecognized tax benefits including interest and penalties at April 26, 2014, is $21.8 million.
For a more complete description of
Outlook Over the last ten years, we have been able to grow revenue and earnings through our strategy of emphasizing value-added, full-service capabilities, using technology to enhance customer service, continuing to improve operating efficiencies, and growing through internal expansion and acquisitions. While the weakness in the general economy that has existed during the last several years is expected to continue to affect our performance for at least the near term,
Patterson'sstrategy will continue to focus on these key elements. With strong operating cash flow and available credit capacity, we are confident that we will be able to financially support our future growth. We believe that the strategic initiatives that we have implemented in the past several years, as well as those that will be implemented in fiscal 2015 and beyond, will strengthen our operational platform and contribute to future growth. Given these factors, we consider ourselves well positioned to capitalize upon the growth opportunities in the dental, companion animal veterinary and the worldwide rehabilitation supply markets.
The following table summarizes
2014 2013 2012 Days sales outstanding (1) 46 42 45 Inventory turnover (2) 7.2 7.1 6.7
(1) Receivables as of
$7 million, $9 millionand $20 million, respectively, of finance contracts received from customers related to certain 45
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financing promotions in fiscal 2014, 2013 and 2012.
contracts in fiscal 2014 and expects to sell the contracts held as of
fiscal 2015. If these finance contracts are excluded from the calculation of
DSO, the pro forma DSO would be 45, 42 and 43 as of
(2) The inventory values used in this calculation are the LIFO inventory values
for all inventories except for manufactured inventories and foreign
inventories, which are valued using FIFO inventory methods.
Foreign sales derive primarily from Patterson Dental and Patterson Medical operations in
Canada, from Patterson Veterinary's operations in the U.K.and from Patterson Medical operations in the U.K., France, Australiaand Thailand. Fluctuations in currency exchange rates have not significantly impacted earnings. However, changes in exchange rates adversely affected net sales in fiscal 2014 and 2013, and enhanced net sales in fiscal 2012. Without foreign currency effects, net sales would have been $13.9 millionhigher, $5.6 millionhigher, and $6.1 millionlower in fiscal years 2014, 2013 and 2012, respectively. Changes in currency exchange rates are a risk accompanying foreign operations, but this risk is not considered material with respect to our consolidated operations.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Pattersonhas adopted various accounting policies to prepare our consolidated financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. Management believes that our policies are conservative and our philosophy is to adopt accounting policies that minimize the risk of adverse events having a material impact on recorded assets and liabilities. However, the preparation of financial statements requires the use of estimates and judgments regarding the realization of assets and the settlement of liabilities based on the information available to management at the time. Changes subsequent to the preparation of the financial statements in economic, technological and competitive conditions may materially impact the recorded values of Patterson'sassets and liabilities. Therefore, the users of the financial statements should read all the notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements and be aware that conditions currently unknown to management may develop in the future. This may require a material adjustment to a recorded asset or liability to consistently apply to our significant accounting principles and policies that are discussed in Note 1 to the Consolidated Financial Statements. The financial performance and condition of Pattersonmay also be materially impacted by transactions and events that we have not previously experienced and for which we have not been required to establish an accounting policy or adopt a generally accepted accounting principle. Revenue Recognition - Revenues are generated from the sale of consumable products, equipment, software products and services, technical service parts and labor, freight and delivery charges, and other sources. Revenues are recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the price is fixed or determinable, and there is reasonable assurance of collection of the sale. Estimates for returns, damaged goods, rebates, loyalty programs and other revenue allowances are made at the time the revenue is recognized based on the historical experience for such items. In addition to revenues generated from the distribution of consumable products under conventional arrangements (buy/sell agreements) where the full market value of the product is recorded as revenue, the veterinary segment may earn a small amount of commission income for services provided under agency agreements with certain pharmaceutical manufacturers. The services generally consist of detailing the product and taking the customer's order. The agency agreement contrasts to a buy/sell agreement in that the veterinary segment does not purchase and handle the product or bill and collect from the customer in an agency relationship with a vendor.
Consumable product sales are recorded upon delivery, except in those circumstances where terms of the sale are FOB shipping point. Commissions under agency agreements are recorded when the services are provided.
Equipment and software product revenues are recognized upon delivery and, if necessary, installation. In those circumstances where terms of the sale are FOB shipping point, revenues are recognized when products are 46
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transferred to the shipping carrier. Revenue derived from post contract customer support for software is deferred and recognized ratably over the period in which the support is provided.
Pattersonprovides financing for select equipment and software sales. Revenue is recorded at the present value of the finance contract, with discount, if any, and interest income recognized over the life of the finance contract as "other income". See Note 6 to the Consolidated Financial Statements, for more information regarding customer financing.
Other revenue, including freight and delivery charges and technical service parts and labor, is recognized when the related product revenue is recognized or when the product or services are provided to the customer.
The receivables that result from the recognition of revenue are reported net of the related allowances discussed above.
Pattersonmaintains a valuation allowance based upon the expected collectability of receivables held. Estimates are used to determine the valuation allowance and are based on several factors, including historical collection data, economic trends and credit worthiness of customers. Receivables are written off when we determine the amounts to be uncollectible, typically upon customer bankruptcy or non-response to continuous collection efforts. The portions of receivable amounts that are not expected to be collected during the next twelve months are classified as long-term. Pattersonhas a relatively large, dispersed customer base and no single customer accounts for more than 1% of consolidated net sales. In addition, the equipment sold to customers under finance contracts generally serves as collateral for the contract and the customer provides a personal guarantee as well. Patterson Advantage Loyalty Program - Patterson Dental provides a point-based awards program to qualifying customers involving the issuance of " PattersonAdvantage dollars" which can be used toward equipment and technology purchases. The program was initiated on January 1, 2009and runs on a calendar year schedule. Patterson Advantage dollars earned during a program year expire one year after the end of the program year. The cost and corresponding liability associated with the program is recognized as contra-revenue in accordance with ASC Topic 605-50, "Revenue Recognition-Customer Payments and Incentives." As of April 26, 2014, we believe we have sufficient experience with the program to reasonably estimate the amount of Patterson Advantage dollars that will not be redeemed and thus have recorded a liability for 87% of the maximum potential amount that could be redeemed. We use the redemption recognition method, and we recognize the estimated value of unused-Advantage dollars as redemptions occur. Breakage recognized was immaterial to all periods presented. Inventory and Reserves - Inventory consists primarily of merchandise held for sale and is stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined using the last-in, first-out (LIFO) method for all inventories, except for foreign inventories and manufactured inventories, which are valued using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method. We continually assess the valuation of inventories and reduce the carrying value of those inventories that are obsolete or in excess of forecasted usage to estimated realizable value. Estimates are made of the net realizable value of such inventories based on analyses and assumptions including, but not limited to, historical usage, future demand and market requirements. Goodwill and Other Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets - Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the fair value of identifiable net assets of businesses acquired. Other indefinite-lived intangible assets include copyrights, trade names and trademarks. We evaluate goodwill on an annual basis, or more frequently if indicators of impairment are present using a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of any reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If we determine that the fair value of the reporting unit may be less than its carrying amount, we evaluate goodwill using a two-step impairment test. Otherwise, we conclude that no impairment is indicated and we do not perform the two-step impairment test. Pattersonhas three reporting units at April 26, 2014, which are the same as our operating units. The first step of the goodwill impairment test compares the book value of a reporting unit, including goodwill, with its fair 47
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value, as determined by its discounted cash flows. If the book value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step of the impairment test is performed to determine the amount of goodwill impairment loss to be recorded. The determination of fair value involves uncertainties because it requires management to make assumptions and to apply judgment to estimate industry and economic factors and the profitability of future business strategies.
Pattersonconducts impairment testing based on current business strategy in light of present industry and economic conditions, as well as future expectations. Additionally, in assessing goodwill for impairment, the reasonableness of the implied control premium is considered based on market capitalizations and recent market transactions. Other indefinite-lived intangible assets are assessed for impairment by comparing the carrying value of an asset with its fair value. If the carrying value exceeds fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to the excess. The determination of fair value involves assumptions, including projected revenues and gross profit levels, as well as consideration of any factors that may indicate potential impairment. In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2014, management completed its annual goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment tests and determined there was no impairment. Although we believe estimates and assumptions used in estimating cash flows and determining fair value are reasonable, making material changes to such estimates and assumptions could materially affect such impairment analyses and financial results, including an impairment charge that could be material. The medical reporting unit was evaluated using a quantitative assessment for impairment testing. This reporting unit has a higher level of sensitivity to impairment as management currently assesses the various estimates and assumptions used to conduct these tests. A significant reduction in these assumptions from further softening in medical utilizations in the U.S. or more severe austerity measures in the United Kingdomcould cause us to recognize a material impairment charge on this reporting unit. At April 26, 2014, the estimated fair value of this reporting unit exceeded its book value by approximately 6%. Also see Note 3 of the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements included in this report. Long-Lived Assets - Long-lived assets, including definite-lived intangible assets, are evaluated for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable through the estimated undiscounted future cash flows derived from such assets. Our definite-lived intangible assets primarily consist of an exclusive distribution agreement and customer lists. When impairment exists, the related assets are written down to fair value.
Income Taxes - We are subject to income taxes in both the U.S. and numerous foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgments are required in determining the consolidated provision for income taxes.
During the ordinary course of business, there are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. As a result, we recognize tax liabilities based on estimates of whether additional taxes and interest will be due. These tax liabilities are recognized when, despite our belief that its tax return positions are supportable, we believe that certain positions may not be fully sustained upon review by tax authorities. We believe that our accruals for tax liabilities are adequate for all open audit years based on an assessment of many factors including past experience and interpretations of tax law. This assessment relies on estimates and assumptions and may involve a series of complex judgments about future events. To the extent that the final tax outcome of these matters is different than the amounts recorded, such differences will impact income tax expense in the period in which such determination is made and could materially affect our financial results. Valuation allowances are established for deferred tax assets if, after assessment of available positive and negative evidence, it is more likely than not that the deferred tax asset will not be fully realized. The valuation allowance reflected in the footnote disclosure relates to net operating loss carryforwards of certain foreign subsidiaries acquired in prior years.
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historical data and actuarial estimates. While current estimates are believed reasonable based on information currently available, actual results could differ and affect financial results due to changes in the amount or frequency of claims, medical cost inflation or other factors. Historically, actual results related to these types of claims have not varied significantly from estimated amounts. Stock-based Compensation - We recognize stock-based compensation based on certain assumptions including inputs within the Black-Scholes Model and estimated forfeitures. These assumptions require subjective judgment and changes in the assumptions can materially affect fair value estimates. Management assesses the assumptions and methodologies used to estimate forfeitures and to calculate estimated fair value of stock-based compensation on a regular basis. Circumstances may change, and additional data may become available over time, which could result in changes to these assumptions and methodologies and thereby materially impact the fair value determination or estimates of forfeitures. If factors change and we employ different assumptions, the amount of compensation expense associated with stock-based compensation may differ significantly from what was recorded in the current period.