Patent number 8747833 is assigned to
The following quote was obtained by the news editors from the background information supplied by the inventors: "An important determinant for the initiation and progression of cancer is the ability of cancer cells to evade the host's immune system. The presence in cancer tissue of, for example, inadequate, inappropriate, or inhibitory immune molecules can restrict the host's ability to generate immune responses to the cancer.
"The disclosures of U.S. Pat. No. 6,803,192 and co-pending U.S. application Ser. Nos. 09/649,108; 10/127,282; and 10/719,477; and International Application No. US/02/32364 are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety."
In addition to the background information obtained for this patent, VerticalNews journalists also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent: "The invention is based in part on the finding that in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients the risk of death is proportional to the number of tumor cells, and/or leukocytes in the tumor, expressing the co-stimulatory human glycoprotein B7-H1. As used herein, the term 'B7-H1' refers to B7-H1 from any mammalian species and the term 'hB7-H1' refers to human B7-H1. Further details on B7-H1 polypeptides and nucleic acids are provided in U.S. Pat. No. 6,803,192 and co-pending U.S. application Ser. No. 09/649,108, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
"The invention provides methods of diagnosing subjects having, or that are likely to develop, cancer of a tissue based on the expression of B7-H1 by cells of the cancer tissue, methods of predicting success of immunotherapy, methods of prognosis, and methods of treatment. Leukocytes in a tumor are sometimes referred to herein as 'tumor-infiltrating leukocytes' or 'leukocytes infiltrating a/the tumor.'
"More specifically, the invention provides a method of diagnosis of cancer in a subject. The method involves: (a) providing a tissue sample from a subject suspected of having, or likely to develop, cancer of the tissue, wherein the sample contains test cells, the test cells being cells of the tissue or leukocytes infiltrating the tissue; and (b) assessing whether the test cells express B7-H1, wherein expression by some or all of the test cells is an indication that the subject has cancer.
"The assessment of B7-H1 expression can be performed by the detection of B7-H1 polypeptide or mRNA. B7-H1 polypeptide can be detected, for example, by contacting the tissue sample, or test cells contained in the tissue sample, with an antibody that binds to the B7-H1 polypeptide. Suitable methods for detection of B7-H1 polypeptide can include, without limitation, fluorescence flow cytometry (FFC) or immunohistology. B7-H1 mRNA can be detected, for example, by contacting the tissue sample with a nucleic acid probe that hybridizes to the B7-H1 mRNA (e.g., such by in situ hybridization) or by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The tissue can be tissue of any organ or anatomical system, and can include, without limitation, lung, epithelial, connective, vascular, muscle, neural, skeletal, lymphatic, prostate, cervical, breast, spleen, gastric, intestinal, oral, esophageal, uterine, ovarian, or testicular tissue. The tissue can also be renal tissue. The subject can be a mammal, such as, for example, a human.
"Another aspect of the invention is a method of identifying a candidate for immunotherapy. This method involves: (a) providing a tissue sample from a subject with cancer of the tissue, wherein the tissue sample contains test cells, the test cells being cancer cells or tumor-infiltrating leukocytes; and (b) assessing the level of test cells in the tissue sample that express B7-H1, wherein, if B7-H1 expression is not detected in the test cells or if less than an immuno-inhibitory threshold level of the test cells express B7-H1, the subject is more likely to benefit from immunotherapy.
"The level of B7-H1 can be assessed by detecting B7-H1 polypeptide or mRNA using, for example, any of the methods described above for method of diagnosis. The tissue can be tissue of any organ or anatomical system, and can include, without limitation, lung, epithelial, connective, vascular, muscle, neural, skeletal, lymphatic, prostate, cervical, breast, spleen, gastric, intestinal, oral, esophageal, uterine, ovarian, or testicular tissue. The tissue can also be renal tissue. The subject can be a mammal, such as, for example, a human. The cancer can be any cancer, and includes, for example, renal cell carcinoma.
"In another embodiment, the invention features a method of determining the prognosis of a subject with cancer. This method involves: (a) providing a tissue sample from a subject with cancer of the tissue, wherein the tissue sample comprises test cells, the test cells being cancer cells or tumor-infiltrating leukocytes; and (b) assessing the level of test cells in the tissue sample that express B7-H1, wherein, if a prognostic level, or more than a prognostic level, of the test cells express B7-H1, the subject is more likely to die of the cancer than if less than a prognostic level of the test cells express B7-H1. The prognostic level is a predetermined value obtained by performing statistical clinical analyses known in the art, e.g., those described herein. The assessment of B7-H1 can be performed by detecting B7-H1 polypeptide or B7-H1 mRNA using any of a variety of methods known in the art, including, for example, those listed above for methods of diagnosis and method of immunotherapy. The tissue sample can be of any tissue, and can include, for example, any of those described above. The subject from which the tissue is provided can be a mammal, e.g., a human.
"Yet another aspect of the invention is a method of treatment. The method involves: (a) identifying a subject with cancer, wherein some or all cells of the cancer or some or all tumor-infiltrating leukocytes of the cancer express B7-H1; and (b) delivering to the subject an agent that interferes with an interaction between B7-H1 and a receptor for B7-H1. The agent can bind to B7-H1 or to a receptor for B7-H1, e.g., the PD-1 receptor. The agent can be an antibody or an antibody fragment (e.g., Fab', F(ab').sub.2, or single chain Fv (scFv) fragment) that binds to B7-H1 or binds to a receptor for B7-H1; 30, soluble B7-H1 or a soluble functional fragment of B7-H1; a soluble receptor for B7-H1 or a soluble functional fragment thereof. Whenever it is desired, the agent can be administered before, simultaneous with, or after administration of one or more immunomodulatory cytokines, growth factors, or antiangiogenic factors. Examples of such immunomodulatory cytokines, growth factors, and antiangiogenic factors include, without limitation, any of interleukins (IL)-1 to 25, interferon-.gamma. (IFN-.gamma.), interferon-.alpha. (IFN-.alpha.), interferon-.beta. (IFN-.beta.), interferon-.gamma. (IFN-.gamma.), tumor necrosis factor-.alpha. (TNF-.alpha.), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), endostatin, angiostatin, and thrombospondin. Administrations of the agent and/or the one or more immunomodulatory cytokines, growth factors, or antiangiogenic factors can be systemic (e.g., intravenous) or local, e.g., during surgery by direct injection or infusion into the tissue that comprises the cells of the cancer and/or tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. The cancer can be, without limitation, hematological cancer, neurological cancer, melanoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, renal cancer, genitourinary cancer, bone cancer, or vascular cancer.
"Yet another aspect of the invention is a method of inhibiting the expression of B7-H1 in a tumor cell or a tumor-infiltrating leukocyte. The method involves: (a) identifying a subject with cancer, the cancer containing a target cell that expresses B7-H1, the target cell being a tumor cell or a tumor-infiltrating leukocyte; and (b) introducing into the target cell: (i) an antisense oligonucleotide that hybridizes to a B7-H1 transcript, wherein the antisense oligonucleotide inhibits the expression of B7-H1 in the cell; or (ii) a B7-H1 interference RNA (RNAi). The introducing step can involve administration of the antisense oligonucleotide or the RNAi to the subject and uptake of the oligonucleotide or the RNAi by the target cell. Alternatively, the introducing step can involve administering to the subject, and uptake by the cell of, a nucleic acid comprising a transcriptional regulatory element (TRE) operably linked to a nucleotide sequence complementary to the antisense oligonucleotide, wherein transcription of the nucleotide sequence inside the cell produces the antisense oligonucleotide. Moreover, the introducing step can include administering to the subject, and uptake by the cell of, a nucleic acid: (a) from which sense and anti-sense strands of the RNAi can be transcribed under the direction of the TREs; or (b) from which both sense and anti-sense strands of the RNAi can be transcribed under the direction of a single TRE.
"The tissue sample can be lung, epithelial, connective, vascular, muscle, neural, skeletal, lymphatic, prostate, cervical, breast, spleen, gastric, intestinal, oral, esophageal, dermal, liver, bladder, thyroid, thymic, adrenal, brain, gallbladder, pancreatic, uterine, ovarian, or testicular tissue. The tissue can also be renal tissue. The cancer of the tissue can be any cancer and includes, e.g., renal cell carcinoma.
"The subject can be a mammal and includes, for example, a human, a non-human primate (e.g., a monkey), a horse, a cow (or an ox or bull), a pig, a sheep, a goat, a cat, a rabbit, a guinea pig, a hamster, a rat, or a gerbil.
"As used herein, 'interferes with an interaction between B7-H1 and a receptor for B7-H1' means (a) completely blocks a physical interaction between B7-H1 molecule and a receptor for B7-H1 such that there is substantially no physical interaction between the B7-H1 molecule and the receptor; or (b) modifies the interaction between the B7-H1 molecule and the receptor such that the physical interaction either does not deliver a signal to the cell that comprises B7-H1, and/or the receptor for B7-H1, or delivers a signal that does not substantially affect the antitumoral activity of the cell.
"'Polypeptide' and 'protein' are used interchangeably and mean any peptide-linked chain of amino acids, regardless of length or post-translational modification. Polypeptides useful for the invention include variant polypeptides that are identical to corresponding wild-type polypeptides but differ by not more than 50 (e.g., not more than: 45; 40; 35; 30; 25; 20; 19; 18; 17; 16; 15; 14; 13; 12; 11; 10; nine; eight; seven; six; five; four; three; two; or one) conservative substitution(s). All that is required is that the variant polypeptide has at least 20% (e.g., at least: 25; 30%; 35%; 40%; 45%; 50%; 60%; 70%; 80%; 85%; 90%; 93%; 95%; 96%; 97%; 98%; 99%; 99.5%; 99.8%; 99.9%; or 100% or more) of the activity of the wild-type polypeptide. Conservative substitutions typically include substitutions within the following groups: glycine and alanine; valine, isoleucine, and leucine; aspartic acid and glutamic acid; asparagine, glutamine, serine, and threonine; lysine, histidine, and arginine; and phenylalanine and tyrosine.
"As used herein, 'tumor-infiltrating leukocytes' can be T lymphocytes (such as CD8.sup.+ T lymphocytes and/or CD4.sup.+ T lymphocytes), B lymphocytes, or other bone marrow-lineage cells including granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils), monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells (i.e., interdigitating dendritic cells), histiocytes, and natural killer cells.
"Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention pertains. In case of conflict, the present document, including definitions, will control. Preferred methods and materials are described below, although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the present invention. All publications, patent applications, patents and other references mentioned herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety. The materials, methods, and examples disclosed herein are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting.
"Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description, from the drawings and from the claims."
URL and more information on this patent, see: Chen, Lieping; Strome, Scott E.; Kwon, Eugene D.. B7-H1 and Methods of Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment of Cancer. U.S. Patent Number 8747833, filed
Keywords for this news article include: Antibodies, Cytokines, Immunology, Interferons, Lymphocytes, Legal Issues, Blood Proteins, Immunoglobulins, Mononuclear Leukocytes, Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins,
Our reports deliver fact-based news of research and discoveries from around the world. Copyright 2014, NewsRx LLC
Most Popular Stories
- Islamic State Obliterating Cultural Landmarks in Mosul
- The 2014 Fastest-Growing 100
- 'Lucy's' Super Powers Tops 'Hercules' at Box Office
- Boehner Says Impeachment Talk Is Democrat Scam
- You're So Vain: Microsoft to Launch First 'Selfie Phone'
- U.S. Home Price Gains Slow for 6th Month in a Row
- VW Site Could Mean Another 2,000 Jobs for Chattanooga
- RV Sales See Highest Increase Post Great Recession
- Merck Profit More Than Doubles in Q2
- Report: China to Declare Qualcomm a Monopoly