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Patent Application Titled "Silver Electrode Coated with Carbon Nanotubes" Published Online

June 26, 2014



By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Politics & Government Week -- According to news reporting originating from Washington, D.C., by VerticalNews journalists, a patent application by the inventors ABULKIBASH, ABDALLA M. (DHAHRAN, SA); ATEIEH, MOATAZ ALI (DHAHRAN, SA); AMRO, ABDULAZIZ NABIL (DHAHRAN, SA), filed on December 4, 2012, was made available online on June 12, 2014.

The assignee for this patent application is King Fahd University Of Petroleum And Minerals.

Reporters obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "The present invention relates to indicator potentiometric electrodes, and particularly to a silver electrode coated with carbon nanotubes used for microtitrimetry by differential electrolytic potentiometry.

"Potentiometric microtitration is a technique similar to direct titration of a redox reaction. No indicator is used. Rather, the potential across the analyte, typically an electrolyte solution, is measured. To do this, two electrodes are used, an indicator electrode and a reference electrode. The indicator electrode forms an electrochemical half-cell with the interested ions in the test solution. The reference electrode forms the other half cell, holding a consistent electrical potential.

"Common reference electrodes are typically either silver-silver chloride or mercury sulfate electrodes, and common indicator electrodes are often made as glass electrodes, platinum electrodes, silver electrodes or ion-selective electrodes. A typical potentiometric measurement system is diagrammatically illustrated in FIG. 1. The system includes an indicator electrode 12 and a reference electrode 14 immersed within a cell C holding analyte A. A potentiometer 16 measures the potential across the two electrodes for determining ionic concentration within the analyte A. FIG. 1 illustrates a typical setup for conventional potentiometry. Differential electrolytic potentiometry (DEP), however, is a technique that utilizes two identical metallic electrodes that are polarized by a heavily stabilized current, and the potential difference between them is measured. At the end-point, this potential difference produces a sharp symmetrical peak. The DEP technique does not require a reference electrode. Thus, the difficulties of the salt bridge are eliminated. For differential electrolytic potentiometry, the system of FIG. 1 would be modified so that two identical indicator electrodes would be used, rather than an indicator electrode 12 and a reference electrode 14. Further, polarization enhances the response of the electrodes. This technique may be applied to various types of titrimetric reactions using different types of electrodes.

"For the complexation microtitration of cyanide, silver indicator electrodes are commonly used. Although accurate for relatively large sample sizes, the accuracy and precision of pure silver electrodes decreases as the sample size decreases. In general, for DEP, silver electrodes and silver-silver halide electrodes have been found to be suitable for precipitation reactions, while antimony oxide electrodes have been found to be suitable for acid-base reactions. These electrodes also suffer from the problem of a decrease in accuracy as a function of sample size, thus limiting their use based on sample size.

"Thus, a silver electrode coated with carbon nanotubes solving the aforementioned problems is desired."

In addition to obtaining background information on this patent application, VerticalNews editors also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent application: "The silver electrode coated with carbon nanotubes is used for microtitrimetry by differential electrolytic potentiometry. The electrode is made by positioning at least one silver electrode within a reaction zone of a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition reactor. A ferrocene catalyst is evaporated within the reactor, and an inlet gas is fed therein to carry the evaporated ferrocene catalyst into the reaction zone. The inlet gas includes hydrogen and a carbon source, such as acetylene.

"The reaction zone is then heated for deposition of carbon onto the silver electrode(s) to form at least one silver electrode coated with carbon nanotubes. The electrode is then cooled and removed from the reactor.

"These and other features of the present invention will become readily apparent upon further review of the following specification and drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

"FIG. 1 diagrammatically illustrates a typical potentiometric measurement system according to the prior art.

"FIG. 2 is a graph illustrating potentiometric measurements associated with the complexation microtitration of a 10 .mu.L sample of cyanide using a pure silver electrode.

"FIG. 3 is a graph illustrating potentiometric measurements associated with the complexation microtitration of a 4 .mu.L sample of cyanide using a pure silver electrode.

"FIG. 4 is a graph illustrating potentiometric measurements associated with the complexation microtitration of a 10 .mu.L sample of cyanide using a silver electrode coated with carbon nanotubes according to the present invention.

"FIG. 5 is a graph illustrating potentiometric measurements associated with the complexation microtitration of a 1.2 .mu.L sample of cyanide using a silver electrode coated with carbon nanotubes according to the present invention.

"FIG. 6 is a graph illustrating potentiometric measurements associated with the microtitration of a 4.0 .mu.L sample of ketoconazole using a pure gold electrode.

"FIG. 7 is a graph illustrating potentiometric measurements associated with the microtitration of a 2.0 .mu.L sample of ketoconazole using a pure gold electrode.

"FIG. 8 is a graph illustrating potentiometric measurements associated with the microtitration of a 4.0 .mu.L sample of ketoconazole using the silver electrode coated with carbon nanotubes according to the present invention.

"FIG. 9 is a graph illustrating potentiometric measurements associated with the microtitration of a 2.0 .mu.L sample of ketoconazole using the silver electrode coated with carbon nanotubes according to the present invention.

"FIG. 10 is a graph illustrating potentiometric measurements associated with the microtitration of a 25 .mu.L, sample of ketoconazole using a pure antimony electrode for.

"FIG. 11 is a graph illustrating potentiometric measurements associated with the microtitration of ketoconazole using a pure antimony electrode for a 10 .mu.L sample.

"FIG. 12 is a graph illustrating potentiometric measurements associated with the microtitration of a 20 .mu.L sample of ketoconazole using the silver electrode coated with carbon nanotubes according to the present invention.

"Similar reference characters denote corresponding features consistently throughout the attached drawings."

For more information, see this patent application: ABULKIBASH, ABDALLA M.; ATEIEH, MOATAZ ALI; AMRO, ABDULAZIZ NABIL. Silver Electrode Coated with Carbon Nanotubes. Filed December 4, 2012 and posted June 12, 2014. Patent URL: http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.html&r=6253&p=126&f=G&l=50&d=PG01&S1=20140605.PD.&OS=PD/20140605&RS=PD/20140605

Keywords for this news article include: Fullerenes, Nanotechnology, Carbon Nanotubes, Emerging Technologies, King Fahd University Of Petroleum And Minerals.

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Source: Politics & Government Week


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