News Column

"Parallel, Side-Effect Based DNS Pre-Caching" in Patent Application Approval Process

June 26, 2014



By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Politics & Government Week -- A patent application by the inventor ROSKIND, James (Redwood City, CA), filed on February 7, 2014, was made available online on June 12, 2014, according to news reporting originating from Washington, D.C., by VerticalNews correspondents.

This patent application is assigned to Google Inc.

The following quote was obtained by the news editors from the background information supplied by the inventors: "Embodiments of the present invention relate to applications and the World Wide Web.

"A web browser is a software application that allows a user to view or download content that is available on a network, such as on a website on the World Wide Web. Content may include text, files, images, audio, video and personal communications. A browser may also allow a user to enter, upload, or execute content. Browsers run on personal computers and mobile devices. Commonly used browsers may presently include, for example, FIREFOX, INTERNET EXPLORER, SAFARI, and OPERA.

"Browsers may use a number of protocols and standards to obtain or manage content flow. Most browsers primarily use hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) to fetch content and webpages. Webpages are located using a uniform resource locator (URL), which identifies where the webpage may be found. Webpages may be retrieved using the IP address of the computer holding the webpage content. In order to be more memorable and human friendly, an IP address or hierarchy may be represented by a hostname (such as www.google.com). A hostname is a domain name that has one or more associated IP addresses. A hostname request is a request to navigate to a webpage using a URL hostname. For example, a hostname request may include a user clicking on a link on a web page or typing a hostname in a URL bar. Hostnames and other information associated with domain names may be resolved or translated to IP addresses using the Domain Name System (DNS). This DNS resolution system is sometimes referred to as the 'phone book' for the Internet.

"DNS resolution requires either looking in a local computer cache or querying a set of DNS servers over the network. A request for DNS resolution may also be known as a DNS lookup call. DNS utilizes authoritative name servers to help map domain names to IP addresses in order to avoid having all the information in a single, central DNS server. These and other intermediate name servers may cache DNS resolution information to shorten DNS resolution times.

"For example, FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary system 100 that performs DNS resolution. When network traffic is required, UDP packets are sent to a DNS resolver, and eventually a UDP response is provided. DNS resolutions may exist in a local cache, such as operating system DNS cache 110. If not, the next resolver is commonly LAN firewall 120, which necessitates traffic from the firewall resolver to another resolver, such as ISP 140, over network 130. The latency time of two such round trips may presently be no less than 40 ms compared to 0-3 ms when operating system DNS cache 110 is the source of the resolution. If resolution information is not in the cache of firewall 120 or ISP 140, other intermediate servers 160 may be queried over one or more networks 150. If the hostname is yet to be resolved, authoritative server 170 or main DNS server 180 will be queried and latency will be further increased. Failures, delays and lost packets contribute to accumulated latency that can commonly exceed 1 second or longer. Longer latency times cause discomfort to users of a web browser.

"DNS resolution times can be reduced. When DNS resolution occurs for a website, cached results will make future visits to a website quicker. For instance, a web page when first visited may have a portion of its presentation latency attributable to DNS resolution, which could exceed 120 milliseconds. Future visits will get DNS queries from cache at no cost.

"User-perceived latency may be reduced through DNS pre-fetching. DNS pre-fetching resolves or fetches a variety of hostnames through the DNS in advance of user activities, anticipating that one of those name resolutions will probably be useful in an upcoming user webpage or hostname request. However, browsers currently do not do DNS pre-fetching for a number of reasons. Engineers have not implemented techniques for DNS pre-fetching in browsers, fearing that the delicate complexity of the network stack would be compromised. Also, engineers have thought that implementations would have to be adapted for each different network application or browser. Further, engineers have worried that any additional network code, processing or complexity prior to a user request would only further increase latency."

In addition to the background information obtained for this patent application, VerticalNews journalists also obtained the inventor's summary information for this patent application: "Embodiments described herein refer to systems and methods for domain name system (DNS) pre-caching. Embodiments described herein also refer to systems and methods for DNS pre-caching for accelerating application startup. According to an embodiment, a method for domain name system (DNS) pre-caching is provided. The method may include receiving one or more uniform resource locator (URL) hostnames for DNS pre-fetch resolution prior to a user hostname request for any of the URL hostnames. The method may also include making a DNS lookup call for at least one of the URL hostnames that are not cached by a DNS cache prior to the user hostname request. The method may further include discarding at least one IP address provided by a DNS resolver for the URL hostnames, wherein a resolution result for at least one of the URL hostnames is cached in the DNS cache in preparation for the user hostname request. According to a further embodiment, the DNS cache may be an operating system DNS cache.

"According to another embodiment, a system for domain name system (DNS) pre-caching comprising a browser is provided. The browser may be configured to receive one or more uniform resource locator (URL) hostnames for DNS pre-fetch resolution prior to a user hostname request for any of the URL hostnames. The browser may be further configured to make a DNS lookup call for at least one of the URL hostnames that are not cached by a DNS cache prior to the user hostname request. The browser may also be configured to discard at least one IP address provided by a DNS resolver for the URL hostnames, wherein a resolution result for at least one of the URL hostnames is cached in the DNS cache in preparation for the user hostname request.

"According to a further embodiment, a system for domain name system (DNS) pre-caching is provided. The system may include a DNS pre-fetcher configured to make a DNS lookup call for one or more uniform resource locator (URL) hostnames and discard an IP address for at least one of the URL hostnames prior to a user hostname request for any of the URL hostnames. The resolution result for at least one of the URL hostnames may be cached in the DNS cache in preparation for the user hostname request. The system may further include a renderer configured to pass the URL hostnames to the DNS pre-fetcher.

"Further embodiments, features, and advantages of the invention, as well as the structure and operation of the various embodiments of the invention are described in detail below with reference to accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

"Embodiments of the invention are described with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the drawings, like reference numbers may indicate identical or functionally similar elements. The drawing in which an element first appears is generally indicated by the left-most digit in the corresponding reference number.

"FIG. 1 is a diagram showing an existing system for DNS hostname resolution, according to an embodiment of the present invention.

"FIG. 2 is a diagram of a system for DNS pre-caching, according to an embodiment of the present invention.

"FIG. 3 is a more detailed diagram of a system for DNS pre-caching, according to an embodiment of the present invention.

"FIG. 4 is a diagram of a system for accelerating application startup using DNS pre-caching, according to an embodiment of the present invention.

"FIG. 5 is a flowchart illustrating a method for DNS pre-caching, according to an embodiment of the present invention.

"FIG. 6 is a flowchart illustrating a method for accelerating application startup using DNS pre-caching, according to an embodiment of the present invention."

URL and more information on this patent application, see: ROSKIND, James. Parallel, Side-Effect Based DNS Pre-Caching. Filed February 7, 2014 and posted June 12, 2014. Patent URL: http://appft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-adv.html&r=692&p=14&f=G&l=50&d=PG01&S1=20140605.PD.&OS=PD/20140605&RS=PD/20140605

Keywords for this news article include: Internet, Google Inc., World Wide Web, Uniform Resource Locators.

Our reports deliver fact-based news of research and discoveries from around the world. Copyright 2014, NewsRx LLC


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Source: Politics & Government Week


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