The patent's assignee is
News editors obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "Microorganisms can live and proliferate as individual cells swimming freely in the environment (as plankton), or they can grow as highly organized, multicellular communities encased in a self-produced polymeric matrix in close association with surfaces and interfaces. The latter microbial lifestyle is referred to as biofilms.
"The composition of biofilms is complex and variable among different microbial species and even within the same species under different environmental conditions. Nonetheless, biofilm formation represents the normal lifestyle of microorganism in the environment and all microbes can make biofilms. Previous studies revealed that bacterial biofilm formation progresses through multiple developmental stages differing in protein profiles [Sauer et al., J Bacteriol. (2002) 184(4):1140-54], beginning with attachment to surface, followed by the immigration and division to form microcolonies and finally maturation involving expression of matrix polymers. Bacteria within each biofilm stage display phenotypes and possess properties that are markedly different from those of the same group growing planktonically [Sauer et al., J Bacteriol. (2004) 186(21):7312-26].
"Biofilms are a major cause of systemic infections (e.g. nosocomial infections) in humans. In the body, biofilms can be associated with tissues (e.g., inner ears, teeth, gums, lungs, heart valves and the urogenital tract). An estimated 65% of bacterial infections in humans are biofilm in nature. Additionally, after forming biofilms, microorganisms tend to change their characteristics, sometimes drastically, such that doses of antibiotics which normally kill the organisms in suspended cultures are completely ineffective against the same microorganisms when the organisms are in attached or conglomerate biofilm form (U.S. Pat. No. 7189351).
"One of the principal concerns with respect to products that are introduced into the body (e.g., contact lenses, central venous catheters, mechanical heart valves and pacemakers) or provide a pathway into the body is microbial infection and invariably biofilm formation. As these infections are difficult to treat with antibiotics, removal of the device is often necessitated, which is traumatic to the patient and increases the medical cost. Accordingly, for such medical apparatuses, the art has long sought means and methods of rendering those medical apparatuses and devices antimicrobial.
"PCT Application No. WO 06/006172 discloses the use of anti-amyloid agents, such as aromatic compounds, for inhibiting formation or disintegrating a pre existing biofilm. The application discloses that compounds preventing amyloid fibril formation in Alzheimers can act against fibril formation in biofilms, and concludes that amino acids having an aromatic arm are effective against biofilms. However, the analysis was limited to full length sequences."
As a supplement to the background information on this patent application, NewsRx correspondents also obtained the inventor's summary information for this patent application: "The present invention provides natural or synthetic peptides isolated from animals, including mammals and non-mammals, that interfere with biofilm formation at its initial stages, in a wide range of microorganisms.
"All peptides described herein show activity that is exclusively directed to the prevention of microbial substrate adhesion and the derived biofilm formation. It is devoid of the commonly observed lethal bactericidal activity, revealed by the antibiotic peptides and secondary metabolites, which provides a strong selective pressure for rapid natural selection by the intensive microbial 'biotic potential.' On the other hand a wide range inhibition of microbial colonization antagonizes a fundamental mechanism of bacterial survival. Therefore an adaptive modification of such mechanism has a low likelihood due to its vitality.
"The specific sequences responsible for cytotoxic activity in peptides isolated from natural sources have not hitherto been identified.
"Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. Although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the present invention, suitable methods and materials are described below. In case of conflict, the patent specification, including definitions, will control. In addition, the materials, methods, and examples are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting.
"As used herein, the terms 'comprising' and 'including' or grammatical variants thereof are to be taken as specifying the stated features, integers, steps or components but do not preclude the addition of one or more additional features, integers, steps, components or groups thereof This term encompasses the terms 'consisting of' and 'consisting essentially of.'
"The phrase 'consisting essentially of' or grammatical variants thereof when used herein are to be taken as specifying the stated features, integers, steps or components but do not preclude the addition of one or more additional features, integers, steps, components or groups thereof but only if the additional features, integers, steps, components or groups thereof do not materially alter the basic and novel characteristics of the claimed composition, device or method.
"The term 'method' refers to manners, means, techniques and procedures for accomplishing a given task including, but not limited to, those manners, means, techniques and procedures either known to, or readily developed from known manners, means, techniques and procedures by practitioners of the chemical, biological and biophysical arts.
"As used herein the term 'about' refers to .+-.10%.
"Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following detailed description, and from the claims.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
"The invention is herein described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings. With specific reference now to the drawings in detail, it is stressed that the particulars shown are by way of example and for purposes of illustrative discussion of the preferred embodiments of the present invention only, and are presented in the cause of providing what is believed to be the most useful and readily understood description of the principles and conceptual aspects of the invention. In this regard, no attempt is made to show structural details of the invention in more detail than is necessary for a fundamental understanding of the invention, the description taken with the drawings making apparent to those skilled in the art how the several forms of the invention may be embodied in practice.
"In the drawings:
"FIG. 1 is a bar graph showing inhibition of adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the synthetic peptide grZ-28C [CSFSQNKSVHSFDYDWYNVSDQADLKNC (SEQ ID NO: 1)] at three different concentrations;
"FIG. 2 is bar graph shows a growth test on Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and
"FIG. 3 is a bar graph showing anti-adherence activity of peptides grZ35 cyc and grZ28C based on the amino acid sequence of GPCR 137b on Pseudomonas aeruginosa; and
"FIG. 4 is a bar graph showing the effects of peptides grZ35 cyc and grZ28C on P. aeruginosa growth."
For additional information on this patent application, see: ZLOTKIN, Amir. Peptides and Compositions for Prevention of Cell Adhesion and Methods of Using Same. Filed
Keywords for this news article include: Peptides, Proteins, Amino Acids, Pseudomonadaceae, Gram-Negative Bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria, Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci,
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