The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with
Blackstone is one of the largest independent managers of private capital in the world. We also provide a wide range of financial advisory services, including financial advisory, restructuring and reorganization advisory and fund placement services.
Our business is organized into five business segments:
• Private Equity. We are a world leader in private equity investing, having managed six general private equity funds, as well as two sector focused funds, since we established this business in 1987. We refer to these managed corporate private equity funds collectively as our
Blackstone Capital Partners("BCP") funds. We also manage the Blackstone Tactical Opportunities Accounts ("Tactical Opportunities"), which are multi-asset class investment accounts, and Strategic Partners Fund Solutions (" Strategic Partners"), a secondary private fund of funds business acquired on August 5, 2013. Through our private equity funds we pursue transactions throughout the world, including leveraged buyout acquisitions of seasoned companies, transactions involving growth equity or start-up businesses in established industries, minority investments, corporate partnerships, distressed debt, structured securities and industry consolidations, in all cases in strictly friendly transactions. • Real Estate. We are a world leader in real estate investing since launching our first real estate fund in 1994. We have managed or continue to manage a number of global, European and Asian focused opportunistic real estate funds, several real estate debt investment funds, core plus real estate investments and a publicly traded real estate investment trust ("REIT") ("BXMT"). Our real estate opportunity funds are diversified geographically and have made significant investments in lodging, major urban office buildings, shopping centers, residential and a variety of real estate operating companies. Our debt investment funds target high yield real estate debt related investment opportunities in the public and private markets, primarily in the United Statesand Europe. We refer to our real estate opportunistic funds as our Blackstone Real Estate Partners("BREP") funds and our real estate debt investment funds as our Blackstone Real Estate Debt Strategies ("BREDS") funds. 54
Table of Contents • Hedge Fund Solutions. Blackstone's Hedge Fund Solutions segment is comprised principally of
Blackstone Alternative Asset Management("BAAM"). BAAM was organized in 1990 and has developed into a leading institutional solutions provider utilizing hedge funds across a wide variety of strategies. BAAM is the world's largest discretionary allocator to hedge funds. • Credit. Our Credit segment is comprised principally of GSO Capital Partners LP("GSO"), a global leader in managing credit-focused products within private debt and public market strategies. GSO's products include senior credit-focused funds, distressed debt funds, mezzanine funds, general credit-focused funds, registered investment companies, separately managed accounts and collateralized loan obligation ("CLO") vehicles. • Financial Advisory. Our Financial Advisory segment serves a diverse and global group of clients with financial and strategic advisory services, restructuring and reorganization advisory services, capital markets services and fund placement services for alternative investment funds.
We generate revenue from fees earned pursuant to contractual arrangements with funds, fund investors and fund portfolio companies (including management, transaction and monitoring fees), and from financial and strategic advisory, restructuring and reorganization advisory, capital markets services and fund placement services for alternative investment funds. We invest in the funds we manage and, in most cases, receive a preferred allocation of income (i.e., a carried interest) or an incentive fee from an investment fund in the event that specified cumulative investment returns are achieved (generally collectively referred to as "Performance Fees"). The composition of our revenues will vary based on market conditions and the cyclicality of the different businesses in which we operate. Net investment gains and investment income generated by the Blackstone Funds, principally private equity and real estate funds, are driven by value created by our operating and strategic initiatives as well as overall market conditions. Fair values are affected by changes in the fundamentals of the portfolio company, the portfolio company's industry, the overall economy and other market conditions.
Blackstone's businesses are materially affected by conditions in the financial markets and economic conditions in the U.S.,
World equity and debt markets were mixed in the first quarter following sharp increases in 2013. In equities, volatility rose due primarily to rising geopolitical tensions and softening economic data in certain regions of the world. The MSCI All Country Index rose 1.2% for the quarter, with sharp declines in January offset by gains later in the quarter. Performance was varied across regions. Emerging markets and
In the U.S., the S&P 500 Index rose 1.3% during the quarter, despite a weak January performance, reaching then-record high levels late in the quarter. Unemployment and other economic metrics continued to generally improve, although markets were briefly impacted by concerns of an earlier-than-expected increase in interest rates by the Federal Reserve, which quickly abated. Equity capital markets remained open in the quarter, supportive of initial public offerings and secondary offerings, despite heightened volatility.
Credit indices rose in the quarter with the high yield index up 3.1% and the leveraged loan index up 1.3%. Benchmark rates declined in the quarter, with the U.S. 10-year Treasury down 30 basis points to 2.7%, and high yield spreads moderately tightened.
Real estate operating fundamentals continue to improve, driven by a lack of new supply and growth in demand. In the U.S., overall vacancy levels have declined 60 basis points to 14.8% and 20 basis points to 10.4% within the office and retail sectors, respectively compared to the first quarter of 2013. In the U.S. hospitality sector, new construction remains significantly below historical levels and supply/demand fundamentals continue to support RevPAR ("Revenue per
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The simplified diagram below depicts our current organizational structure. The diagram does not depict all of our subsidiaries, including intermediate holding companies through which certain of the subsidiaries depicted are held.
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Key Financial Measures and Indicators
We manage our business using traditional financial measures and key operating metrics since we believe these metrics measure the productivity of our investment activities. Our key financial measures and indicators are discussed below.
Revenues primarily consist of management and advisory fees, performance fees, investment income, interest and dividend revenue and other. Please refer to "Part I. Item 1. Business - Incentive Arrangements / Fee Structure" and "Part I. Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Critical Accounting Policies - Revenue Recognition" in our 2013 Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding the manner in which Base Management Fees and Performance Fees are generated.
Management and Advisory Fees, Net - Management and Advisory Fees, Net are comprised of management fees, including base management fees, transaction and other fees, advisory fees and management fee reductions and offsets.
The Partnership earns base management fees from limited partners of funds in each of its managed funds, at a fixed percentage of assets under management, net asset value, total assets, committed capital or invested capital, or
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in some cases, a fixed fee. Base management fees are recognized based on contractual terms specified in the underlying investment advisory agreements.
Transaction and other fees (including monitoring fees) are fees charged directly to managed funds and portfolio companies. The investment advisory agreements generally require that the investment adviser reduce the amount of management fees payable by the limited partners to the Partnership ("management fee reductions") by an amount equal to a portion of the transaction and other fees directly paid to the Partnership by the portfolio companies. The amount of the reduction varies by fund, the type of fee paid by the portfolio company and the previously incurred expenses of the fund.
Management fee offsets are reductions to management fees payable by our limited partners, which are granted based on the amount they reimburse Blackstone for placement fees.
Advisory fees consist of advisory retainer and transaction-based fee arrangements related to financial and strategic advisory services, restructuring and reorganization advisory services, capital markets services and fund placement services for alternative investment funds. Advisory retainer fees are recognized when services for the transactions are complete, in accordance with terms set forth in individual agreements. Transaction-based fees are recognized when (a) there is evidence of an arrangement with a client, (b) agreed upon services have been provided, (c) fees are fixed or determinable, and (d) collection is reasonably assured. Fund placement fees are recognized as earned upon the acceptance by a fund of capital or capital commitments.
Accrued but unpaid Management and Advisory Fees, net of management fee reductions and management fee offsets, as of the reporting date, are included in Accounts Receivable or Due from Affiliates in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition. Management fees paid by limited partners to the Blackstone Funds and passed on to Blackstone are not considered affiliate revenues.
Performance Fees - Performance Fees earned on the performance of Blackstone's hedge fund structures ("Incentive Fees") are recognized based on fund performance during the period, subject to the achievement of minimum return levels, or high water marks, in accordance with the respective terms set out in each hedge fund's governing agreements. Accrued but unpaid Incentive Fees charged directly to investors in Blackstone's offshore hedge funds as of the reporting date are recorded within Due from Affiliates in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition. Accrued but unpaid Incentive Fees on onshore funds as of the reporting date are reflected in Investments in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition. Incentive Fees are realized at the end of a measurement period, typically annually. Once realized, such fees are not subject to clawback or reversal.
In certain fund structures, specifically in private equity, real estate and certain Hedge Fund Solutions and credit-focused funds ("Carry Funds"), performance fees ("Carried Interest") are allocated to the general partner based on cumulative fund performance to date, subject to a preferred return to limited partners. At the end of each reporting period, the Partnership calculates the Carried Interest that would be due to the Partnership for each fund, pursuant to the fund agreements, as if the fair value of the underlying investments were realized as of such date, irrespective of whether such amounts have been realized. As the fair value of underlying investments varies between reporting periods, it is necessary to make adjustments to amounts recorded as Carried Interest to reflect either (a) positive performance resulting in an increase in the Carried Interest allocated to the general partner or (b) negative performance that would cause the amount due to the Partnership to be less than the amount previously recognized as revenue, resulting in a negative adjustment to Carried Interest allocated to the general partner. In each scenario, it is necessary to calculate the Carried Interest on cumulative results compared to the Carried Interest recorded to date and make the required positive or negative adjustments. The Partnership ceases to record negative Carried Interest allocations once previously recognized Carried Interest allocations for such fund have been fully reversed. The Partnership is not obligated to pay guaranteed returns or hurdles, and therefore, cannot have negative Carried Interest over the life of a fund. Accrued but unpaid Carried Interest as of the reporting date is reflected in Investments in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition.
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Carried Interest is realized when an underlying investment is profitably disposed of and the fund's cumulative returns are in excess of the preferred return or, in limited instances, after certain thresholds for return of capital are met. Carried Interest is subject to clawback to the extent that the Carried Interest received to date exceeds the amount due to Blackstone based on cumulative results. As such, the accrual for potential repayment of previously received Carried Interest, which is a component of Due to Affiliates, represents all amounts previously distributed to
Investment Income (Loss) - Investment Income (Loss) represents the unrealized and realized gains and losses on the Partnership's principal investments, including its investments in Blackstone Funds that are not consolidated, its equity method investments and other principal investments. Investment Income (Loss) is realized when the Partnership redeems all or a portion of its investment or when the Partnership receives cash income, such as dividends or distributions. Unrealized Investment Income (Loss) results from changes in the fair value of the underlying investment as well as the reversal of unrealized gain (loss) at the time an investment is realized.
Interest and Dividend Revenue - Interest and Dividend Revenue comprises primarily interest and dividend income earned on principal investments held by Blackstone.
Other Revenue - Other Revenue consists of miscellaneous income and foreign exchange gains and losses arising on transactions denominated in currencies other than U.S. dollars.
Compensation and Benefits - Compensation - Compensation and Benefits consists of (a) employee compensation, comprising salary and bonus, and benefits paid and payable to employees and senior managing directors and (b) equity-based compensation associated with the grants of equity-based awards to employees and senior managing directors. Compensation cost relating to the issuance of equity-based awards to senior managing directors and employees is measured at fair value at the grant date, taking into consideration expected forfeitures, and expensed over the vesting period on a straight-line basis. Equity-based awards that do not require future service are expensed immediately. Cash settled equity-based awards are classified as liabilities and are remeasured at the end of each reporting period.
Compensation and Benefits - Performance Fee - Performance Fee Compensation consists of Carried Interest and Incentive Fee allocations, and may in future periods also include allocations of investment income from Blackstone's firm investments, to employees and senior managing directors participating in certain profit sharing initiatives. Such compensation expense is subject to both positive and negative adjustments. Unlike Carried Interest and Incentive Fees, compensation expense is based on the performance of individual investments held by a fund rather than on a fund by fund basis. Compensation received from advisory clients in the form of securities of such clients may also be allocated to employees and senior managing directors.
Other Operating Expenses - Other Operating Expenses represents general and administrative expenses including interest expense, occupancy and equipment expenses and other expenses, which consist principally of professional fees, public company costs, travel and related expenses, communications and information services and depreciation and amortization.
Fund Expenses - The expenses of our consolidated Blackstone Funds consist primarily of interest expense, professional fees and other third party expenses.
Non-Controlling Interests in Consolidated Entities
Non-Controlling Interests in Consolidated Entities represent the component of Partners' Capital in consolidated Blackstone Funds held by third party investors and employees. The percentage interests held by third parties and
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employees is adjusted for general partner allocations and by subscriptions and redemptions in funds of hedge funds and certain credit-focused funds which occur during the reporting period. In addition, all non-controlling interests in consolidated Blackstone Funds are attributed a share of income (loss) arising from the respective funds and a share of other comprehensive income, if applicable. Income (Loss) is allocated to non-controlling interests in consolidated entities based on the relative ownership interests of third party investors and employees after considering any contractual arrangements that govern the allocation of income (loss) such as fees allocable to
Redeemable Non-Controlling Interests in Consolidated Entities
Non-controlling interests related to funds of hedge funds and certain other credit-focused funds are subject to annual, semi-annual or quarterly redemption by investors in these funds following the expiration of a specified period of time (typically between one and three years), or may be withdrawn subject to a redemption fee in the funds of hedge funds and certain credit-focused funds during the period when capital may not be withdrawn. As limited partners in these types of funds have been granted redemption rights, amounts relating to third party interests in such consolidated funds are presented as Redeemable Non-Controlling Interests in Consolidated Entities within the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition. When redeemable amounts become legally payable to investors, they are classified as a liability and included in Accounts Payable, Accrued Expenses and Other Liabilities in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition. For all consolidated funds in which redemption rights have not been granted, non-controlling interests are presented within Partners' Capital in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition as Non-Controlling Interests in Consolidated Entities.
Non-Controlling Interests in
Non-Controlling Interests in
Certain costs and expenses are borne directly by the Holdings Partnerships. Income (Loss), excluding those costs directly borne by and attributable to the Holdings Partnerships, is attributable to Non-Controlling Interests in
The Blackstone Holdings Partnerships and certain of their subsidiaries operate in the U.S. as partnerships for U.S. federal income tax purposes and generally as corporate entities in non-U.S. jurisdictions. Accordingly, these entities in some cases are subject to
Income taxes are accounted for using the asset and liability method of accounting. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis, using tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect on deferred assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period when the change is enacted. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Current and deferred tax liabilities are recorded within Accounts Payable, Accrued Expenses and Other Liabilities in the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition.
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Blackstone uses the flow-through method to account for investment tax credits. Under this method, the investment tax credits are recognized as a reduction to income tax expense.
Blackstone analyzes its tax filing positions in all of the U.S. federal, state, local and foreign tax jurisdictions where it is required to file income tax returns, as well as for all open tax years in these jurisdictions. Blackstone records uncertain tax positions on the basis of a two-step process: (a) determination is made whether it is more likely than not that the tax positions will be sustained based on the technical merits of the position and (b) those tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not threshold are recognized as the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely to be realized upon ultimate settlement with the related tax authority. Blackstone recognizes accrued interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in General, Administrative and Other expenses within the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
There remains some uncertainty regarding Blackstone's future taxation levels. Over the past several years, a number of legislative and administrative proposals to change the taxation of Carried Interest have been introduced and, in certain cases, have been passed by the
The most recent legislative proposals provided that, for taxable years beginning ten years after the date of enactment, income derived with respect to an ISPI that is not a qualified capital interest and that is subject to the foregoing rules would not meet the qualifying income requirements under the publicly traded partnership rules. Therefore, if similar legislation were to be enacted, following such ten-year period, we would be precluded from qualifying as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes or be required to hold all such ISPIs through corporations.
The Obama administration has proposed to
Earlier this year, Representative
States and other jurisdictions have also considered legislation to increase taxes with respect to Carried Interest. For example, in 2010, the
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If we were taxed as a corporation or were forced to hold interests in entities earning income from Carried Interest through taxable subsidiary corporations, our effective tax rate could increase significantly. The federal statutory rate for corporations is currently 35%, and the state and local tax rates, net of the federal benefit, aggregate approximately 5%. If a variation of the above described legislation or any other change in the tax laws, rules, regulations or interpretations preclude us from qualifying for treatment as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes under the publicly traded partnership rules or force us to hold interests in entities earning income from Carried Interest through taxable subsidiary corporations, this could materially increase our tax liability, and could well result in a reduction in the market price of our common units.
It is not possible at this time to meaningfully quantify the potential impact on Blackstone of this potential future legislation or any similar legislation. Multiple versions of legislation in this area have been proposed over the last few years that have included significantly different provisions regarding effective dates and the treatment of invested capital, tiered entities and cross-border operations, among other matters. Depending upon what version of the legislation, if any, were enacted, the potential impact on a public company such as Blackstone in a given year could differ dramatically and could be material. In addition, many of these legislative proposals would not themselves impose a tax on a publicly traded partnership such as Blackstone. Rather, they could force Blackstone and other publicly traded partnerships to restructure their operations so as to prevent disqualifying income from reaching the publicly traded partnership in amounts that would disqualify the partnership from treatment as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Such a restructuring could result in more income being earned in corporate subsidiaries, thereby increasing corporate income tax liability indirectly borne by the publicly traded partnership. In addition, we, and our common unitholders, could be taxed on any such restructuring. The nature of any such restructuring would depend on the precise provisions of the legislation that was ultimately enacted, as well as the particular facts and circumstances of Blackstone's operations at the time any such legislation were to take effect, making the task of predicting the amount of additional tax highly speculative.
The Obama administration has announced other proposals for potential reform to the U.S. federal income tax rules for businesses, including reducing the deductibility of interest for corporations, reducing the top marginal rate on corporations and subjecting entities currently treated as partnerships for tax purposes to an entity level income tax similar to the corporate income tax. Several proposals for reform if enacted could adversely affect us. It is unclear what any actual legislation would provide, when it would be proposed or what its prospects for enactment would be.
Blackstone uses Economic Income ("EI") as a key measure of value creation, a benchmark of its performance and in making resource deployment and compensation decisions across its five segments. EI represents segment net income before taxes excluding transaction-related charges. Transaction-related charges arise from Blackstone's initial public offering ("IPO") and long-term retention programs outside of annual deferred compensation and other
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corporate actions, including acquisitions. Transaction-related charges include equity-based compensation charges, the amortization of intangible assets and contingent consideration associated with acquisitions. EI presents revenues and expenses on a basis that deconsolidates the investment funds we manage. Economic Net Income ("ENI") represents EI adjusted to include current period taxes. Taxes represent the current tax provision (benefit) calculated on Income (Loss) Before Provision for Taxes. EI, our principal segment measure, is derived from and reconciled to, but not equivalent to, its most directly comparable GAAP measure of Income (Loss) Before Provision for Taxes. (See Note 18. "Segment Reporting" in the "Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements" in Part I. Item 1. Financial Statements.)
Fee Related Earnings
Blackstone uses Fee Related Earnings ("FRE"), which is derived from EI, as a measure to highlight earnings from operations excluding: (a) the income related to performance fees and related performance fee compensation costs, (b) income earned from Blackstone's investments in the Blackstone Funds, and (c) realized and unrealized gains (losses) from other investments except for such gains (losses) from Blackstone's Treasury Cash Management Strategies. Management uses FRE as a measure to assess whether recurring revenue from our businesses is sufficient to adequately cover all of our operating expenses and generate profits. FRE equals contractual fee revenues, investment income from Blackstone's Treasury Cash Management Strategies and interest income, less (a) compensation expenses (which includes amortization of non-IPO and non-acquisition-related equity-based awards, but excludes amortization of IPO and acquisition-related equity-based awards, Carried Interest and incentive fee compensation) and (b) other operating expenses. See "- Liquidity and Capital Resources - Sources of Liquidity" below for our discussion of Fee Related Earnings.
Distributable Earnings, which is derived from our segment reported results, is a supplemental measure to assess performance and amounts available for distributions to Blackstone unitholders, including Blackstone personnel and others who are limited partners of the Blackstone Holdings Partnerships. Distributable Earnings, which is a measure not prepared under accounting principles generally accepted in
Distributable Earnings, which is a component of Economic Net Income, is the sum across all segments of: (a) Total Management and Advisory Fees, (b) Interest and Dividend Revenue, (c) Other Revenue, (d) Realized Performance Fees, and (e) Realized Investment Income (Loss); less (a) Compensation, excluding the expense of equity-based awards, (b) Realized Performance Fee Compensation, (c) Other Operating Expenses, and (d) Taxes and Payables Under the Tax Receivable Agreement.
Adjusted Earnings Before Interest, Taxes and Depreciation and Amortization
Adjusted Earnings Before Interest, Taxes and Depreciation and Amortization ("Adjusted EBITDA"), is a supplemental measure derived from our segment reported results and may be used to assess our ability to service our borrowings. Adjusted EBITDA represents Distributable Earnings plus the addition of (a) Interest Expense, (b) Taxes and Related Payables Including Payable Under Tax Receivable Agreement, and (c) Depreciation and Amortization. See "- Liquidity and Capital Resources - Sources of Liquidity" below for our calculation of Adjusted EBITDA.
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Summary Walkdown of GAAP to Non-GAAP Financial Metrics
The relationship of our GAAP to non-GAAP financial measures is presented in the summary walkdown below. The summary walkdown shows how each non-GAAP financial measure is related to the other non-GAAP financial measures. This presentation is not meant to be a detailed calculation of each measure, but to show the relationship between the measures. For the calculation of each of these non-GAAP financial measures and a full reconciliation of Income Before Provision for Taxes to Distributable Earnings, please see "- Liquidity and Capital Resources - Sources of Liquidity."
[[Image Removed: LOGO]] Operating Metrics
The alternative asset management business is a complex business that is primarily based on managing third party capital and does not require substantial capital investment to support rapid growth. However, there also can be volatility associated with its earnings and cash flows. Since our inception, we have developed and used various key operating metrics to assess and monitor the operating performance of our various alternative asset management businesses in order to monitor the effectiveness of our value creating strategies.
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Assets Under Management. Assets Under Management refers to the assets we manage. Our Assets Under Management equals the sum of:
(a) the fair value of the investments held by our carry funds and our side-by-side and co-investment entities managed by us, plus the capital that we are entitled to call from investors in those funds and entities pursuant to the terms of their respective capital commitments, including capital commitments to funds that have yet to commence their investment periods, (b) the net asset value of our funds of hedge funds, hedge funds and certain registered investment companies, (c) the fair value of assets we manage pursuant to separately managed accounts, (d) the amount of debt and equity outstanding for our CLOs and collateralized debt obligations ("CDOs") during the reinvestment period, (e) the aggregate par amount of collateral assets, including principal cash, for our CLOs and CDOs after the reinvestment period, (f) the gross amount of assets (including leverage) for certain of our credit-focused registered investment companies, and (g) the fair value of common stock, preferred stock, convertible debt, or similar instruments issued by our public REIT.
Our carry funds are commitment-based drawdown structured funds that do not permit investors to redeem their interests at their election. Our funds of hedge funds and hedge funds generally have structures that afford an investor the right to withdraw or redeem their interests on a periodic basis (for example, annually or quarterly), in most cases upon advance written notice, with the majority of our funds requiring from 60 days up to 95 days' notice, depending on the fund and the liquidity profile of the underlying assets. Investment advisory agreements related to separately managed accounts may generally be terminated by an investor on 30 to 90 days' notice.
Fee-Earning Assets Under Management. Fee-Earning Assets Under Management refers to the assets we manage on which we derive management and/or performance fees. Our Fee-Earning Assets Under Management equals the sum of:
(a) for our Private Equity segment funds and Real Estate segment carry funds including certain real estate debt investment funds and certain of our Hedge Fund Solutions funds, the amount of capital commitments, remaining invested capital, fair value or par value of assets held, depending on the fee terms of the fund, (b) for our credit-focused carry funds, the amount of remaining invested capital (which may include leverage) or net asset value, depending on the fee terms of the fund, (c) the remaining invested capital of co-investments managed by us on which we receive fees, (d) the net asset value of our funds of hedge funds, hedge funds and certain registered investment companies, (e) the fair value of assets we manage pursuant to separately managed accounts, (f) the net proceeds received from equity offerings and accumulated core earnings of our REITs, subject to certain adjustments, (g) the aggregate par amount of collateral assets, including principal cash, of our CLOs and CDOs, and (h) the gross amount of assets (including leverage) for certain of our credit-focused registered investment companies.
Our calculations of assets under management and fee-earning assets under management may differ from the calculations of other asset managers, and as a result this measure may not be comparable to similar measures
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presented by other asset managers. In addition, our calculation of assets under management includes commitments to, and the fair value of, invested capital in our funds from Blackstone and our personnel, regardless of whether such commitments or invested capital are subject to fees. Our definitions of assets under management or fee-earning assets under management are not based on any definition of assets under management or fee-earning assets under management that is set forth in the agreements governing the investment funds that we manage.
For our carry funds, total assets under management includes the fair value of the investments held, whereas fee-earning assets under management includes the amount of capital commitments, the remaining amount of invested capital at cost depending on whether the investment period has or has not expired or the fee terms of the fund. As such, fee-earning assets under management may be greater than total assets under management when the aggregate fair value of the remaining investments is less than the cost of those investments.
Limited Partner Capital Invested. Limited Partner Capital Invested represents the amount of Limited Partner capital commitments which were invested by our carry and drawdown funds during each period presented, plus the capital invested through co-investments arranged by us that were made by limited partners in investments of our carry funds on which we receive fees or a Carried Interest allocation or Incentive Fee.
The amount of committed undrawn capital available for investment, including general partner and employee commitments, is known as dry powder and is an indicator of the capital we have available for future investments.
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