By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Health & Medicine Week -- Investigators publish new report on Inflammation. According to news reporting originating in Utrecht, Netherlands, by NewsRx journalists, research stated, "The increasing manufacture and use of products based on nanotechnology raises concerns for both workers and consumers. Various studies report induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation exposure to nanoparticles, which can vary in aspects such as size, shape, charge, crystallinity, chemical composition, and dissolution rate."
The news reporters obtained a quote from the research from the University of Utrecht, "Each of these aspects can affect their toxicity, although it is largely unknown to what extent. The aim of the current review is to analyse published data on inhalation of nanoparticles to identify and evaluate the contribution of their physicochemical characteristics to the onset and development of pulmonary inflammation. Many physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles affect their lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response that, in combination, ultimately determine whether pulmonary inflammation will occur and to what extent. Lung deposition is mainly determined by the physical properties of the aerosol (size, density, shape, hygroscopicity) in relation to airflow and the anatomy of the respiratory system, whereas clearance and translocation of nanoparticles are mainly determined by their geometry and surface characteristics. Besides size and chemical composition, other physicochemical characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation after inhalation. As some nanoparticles dissolve, they can release toxic ions that can damage the lung tissue, making dissolution rate an important characteristic that affects lung inflammation. Fibre-shaped materials are more toxic to the lungs compared to spherical shaped nanoparticles of the same chemical composition. In general, cationic nanoparticles are more cytotoxic than neutral or anionic nanoparticles. Finally, surface reactivity correlates well with observed pulmonary inflammation. With all these characteristics affecting different stages of the events leading to pulmonary inflammation, no unifying dose metric could be identified to describe pulmonary inflammation for all nanomaterials, although surface reactivity might be a useful measure. To determine the extent to which the various characteristics influence the induction of pulmonary inflammation, the effect of these characteristics on lung deposition, clearance, and pulmonary response should be systematically evaluated."
According to the news reporters, the research concluded: "The results can then be used to facilitate risk assessment by categorizing nanoparticles according to their characteristics."
For more information on this research see: Physicochemical characteristics of nanomaterials that affect pulmonary inflammation. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 2014;11():1-25. Particle and Fibre Toxicology can be contacted at: Biomed Central Ltd, 236 Grays Inn Rd, Floor 6, London WC1X 8HL, England. (BioMed Central - www.biomedcentral.com/; Particle and Fibre Toxicology - www.particleandfibretoxicology.com)
Our news correspondents report that additional information may be obtained by contacting H.M. Braakhuis, University of Utrecht, Inst Risk Assessment Sci, NL-3508 TD Utrecht, Netherlands. Additional authors for this research include M. Park, I. Gosens, W.H. De Jong and F.R. Cassee (see also Inflammation).
Keywords for this news article include: Europe, Utrecht, Netherlands, Inflammation, Nanoparticle, Nanotechnology, Emerging Technologies
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