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Patent Issued for Method and Apparatus for Monitoring of Diastolic Hemodynamics

February 10, 2014



By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Cardiovascular Week -- Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc. (St. Paul, MN) has been issued patent number 8636669, according to news reporting originating out of Alexandria, Virginia, by NewsRx editors (see also Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc.).

The patent's inventors are Siejko, Krzysztof Z. (Maple Grove, MN); Zhu, Qingsheng (Wexford, PA); Carlson, Gerrard M. (Champlin, MN).

This patent was filed on January 5, 2011 and was published online on January 28, 2014.

From the background information supplied by the inventors, news correspondents obtained the following quote: "A heart is the center of a person's circulatory system. It includes a complex electro-mechanical system performing two major pumping functions. The left portions of the heart, including the left atrium and the left ventricle, draw oxygenated blood from the lungs and pump it to the organs of the body to provide the organs with their metabolic needs for oxygen. The right portions of the heart, including the right atrium and the right ventricle, draw deoxygenated blood from the organs and pump it into the lungs where the blood gets oxygenated. These mechanical pumping functions are accomplished by contractions of the myocardium (heart muscles). In a normal heart, the sinus node, the heart's natural pacemaker, generates electrical signals, called action potentials, that propagate through an electrical conduction system to various regions of the heart to excite myocardial tissues in these regions. Coordinated delays in the propagations of the action potentials in a normal electrical conduction system cause the various regions of the heart to contract in synchrony such that the pumping functions are performed efficiently. Thus, the normal pumping functions of the heart, indicated by hemodynamic performance, require a normal electrical system to generate the action potentials and deliver them to designated portions of the myocardium with proper timing, a normal myocardium capable of contracting with sufficient strength, and a normal electro-mechanical association such that all regions of the heart are excitable by the action potentials.

"The function of the electrical system is indicated by electrocardiography (ECG) with at least two electrodes placed in or about the heart to sense the action potentials. When the heart beats irregularly or otherwise abnormally, one or more ECG signals indicate that contractions at various cardiac regions are chaotic and unsynchronized. Such conditions are known as cardiac arrhythmias. Cardiac arrhythmias result in a reduced pumping efficiency of the heart, and hence, diminished blood circulation. Examples of such arrhythmias include bradyarrhythmias, that is, hearts that beat too slowly or irregularly, and tachyarrhythmias, that is, hearts that beat too quickly. A patient may also suffer from weakened contraction strength related to deterioration of the myocardium. This further reduces the pumping efficiency. For example, a heart failure patient suffers from an abnormal electrical conduction system with excessive conduction delays and deteriorated heart muscles that result in asynchronous and weak heart contractions, and hence, reduced pumping efficiency, or poor hemodynamic performance. Thus, in addition to ECG, the function of the mechanical system and the electro-mechanical association need to be measured to assess the overall pumping performance of the heart.

"Characteristics of heart sounds are known to be indicative of various mechanical properties and activities of the heart. Measurements performed with synchronously recorded ECG and heart sounds provide for quantitative indications of the electro-mechanical association. For example, amplitudes of the third heart sound (S3) and fourth heart sound (S4) are related to filling pressures of the left ventricle during diastole. Fundamental frequencies of S3 and S4 are related to ventricular stiffness and dimension. Chronic changes in S3 amplitude is correlated to left ventricular chamber stiffness and degree of restrictive filling. Change in the interval between atrial contraction and S4 is correlated to the changes in left ventricular end of diastolic pressure. Such parameters, being correlated to the heart's mechanical properties and electromechanical association, quantitatively indicate abnormal cardiac conditions, including degrees of severity, and need of appropriate therapies.

"For these and other reasons, there is a need for a system providing for cardiac therapy based on parameters related to heart sounds."

Supplementing the background information on this patent, NewsRx reporters also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent: "A cardiac rhythm management system provides for ambulatory monitoring of hemodynamic performance based on quantitative measurements of heart sound related parameters for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Monitoring of such heart sound related parameters allows the cardiac rhythm management system to determine a need for delivering a therapy and/or therapy parameter adjustments based on conditions of a heart. This monitoring also allows a physician to observe or assess the hemodynamic performance for diagnosing and making therapeutic decisions. Because the conditions of the heart may fluctuate and may deteriorate significantly between physician visits, the ambulatory monitoring, performed on a continuous or periodic basis, ensures a prompt response by the cardiac rhythm management system that may save a life, prevent hospitalization, or prevent further deterioration of the heart.

"In one embodiment, a system includes an acoustic sensor, a cardiac sensing circuit, a heart sound detector, a parameter generator, a processor, and a therapy circuit. The acoustic sensor senses an acoustic energy and produces an acoustic sensor signal indicative heart sounds. The cardiac sensing circuit senses a cardiac signal indicative of cardiac electrical events. The heart sound detector detects selected heart sounds based on the acoustic sensor signal and the cardiac signal. The parameter generator generates values of at least one predetermined parameter related to the selected heart sounds. The processor includes a trending analyzer that produces and analyzes at least one trend related to the selected heart sounds based on the values of the predetermined parameter. The therapy circuit delivers cardiac therapy with at least one therapy parameter determined based on the trend.

"In another embodiment, an acoustic energy is sensed to produce an acoustic sensor signal indicative heart sounds. One or more cardiac signals indicative of cardiac electrical events are also sensed. Selected heart sounds are detected. Parameter values related to the selected heart sounds and selected cardiac electrical events are generated. Selected parameter values, which are associated with one or more types of the selected heart sounds, are analyzed to produce at least one trend. A therapy, with at least one parameter determined based on the trend, is delivered.

"In yet another embodiment, a cardiac rhythm management system includes an implantable device. The implantable device includes an acoustic sensor, a cardiac sensing circuit, a gating module, a heart sound detector, a measurement module, and a therapy circuit. The acoustic sensor senses an acoustic energy to produce an acoustic sensor signal indicative heart sounds. The cardiac sensing circuit senses at least one cardiac signal indicative of cardiac electrical events. The gating module generates heart sound detection windows each timed for detection of one of selected heart sounds based on a time of occurrence of one of selected cardiac electrical events. The heart sound detector detects the selected heart sounds. The measurement module generates parameter values related to the selected heart sounds. The therapy circuit delivers a therapy based on the parameter values.

"This summary is intended not to limit the claimed subject matter, and the scope of the invention is defined by attached claims and their equivalents."

For the URL and additional information on this patent, see: Siejko, Krzysztof Z.; Zhu, Qingsheng; Carlson, Gerrard M.. Method and Apparatus for Monitoring of Diastolic Hemodynamics. U.S. Patent Number 8636669, filed January 5, 2011, and published online on January 28, 2014. Patent URL: http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=80&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=3993&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=20140128.PD.&OS=ISD/20140128&RS=ISD/20140128

Keywords for this news article include: Therapy, Arrhythmia, Cardiology, Cardiac Pacemakers Inc..

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Source: Cardiovascular Week


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