The assignee for this patent, patent number 8644918, is
Reporters obtained the following quote from the background information supplied by the inventors: "The heart is the center of a person's circulatory system. The left portions of the heart, including the left atrium (LA) and left ventricle (LV), draw oxygenated blood from the lungs and pump it to the organs of the body to provide the organs with their metabolic needs for oxygen. The right portions of the heart, including the right atrium (RA) and right ventricle (RV), draw deoxygenated blood from the body organs and pump it to the lungs where the blood gets oxygenated. These mechanical pumping functions are accomplished by contractions of the heart. In a normal heart, the sinoatrial (SA) node, the heart's natural pacemaker, generates electrical impulses, called action potentials, that propagate through an electrical conduction system to various regions of the heart to cause the muscular tissues of these regions to depolarize and contract. The electrical conduction system includes, in the order by which the electrical impulses travel in a normal heart, internodal pathways between the SA node and the atrioventricular (AV) node, the AV node, the His bundle, and the Purkinje system including the right bundle branch (RBB, which conducts the electrical impulses to the RV) and the left bundle branch (LBB, which conducts the electrical impulses to the LV). More generally, the electrical impulses travel through an AV conduction pathway to cause the atria, and then the ventricles, to contract.
"Tachycardia (also referred to as tachyarrhythmia) occurs when the heart contracts at a rate higher than a normal heart rate. Tachycardia generally includes ventricular tachycardia (VT) and supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). VT occurs, for example, when a pathological conduction loop formed in the ventricles through which electrical impulses travel circularly within the ventricles, or when a pathologically formed electrical focus generates electrical impulses from the ventricles. SVT includes physiologic sinus tachycardia and pathologic SVTs. The physiologic sinus tachycardia occurs when the SA node generates the electrical impulses at a particularly high rate. A pathologic SVT occurs, for example, when a pathologic conduction loop forms in an atrium. Fibrillation occurs when the heart contracts at a tachycardia rate with an irregular rhythm. Ventricular fibrillation (VF), as a ventricular arrhythmia with an irregular conduction, is a life threatening condition requiring immediate medical treatment such as ventricular defibrillation. Atrial fibrillation (AF), as an SVT with an irregular rhythm, though not immediately life threatening, also needs medical treatment such as atrial defibrillation to restore a normal cardiac function and prevents the deterioration of the heart.
"Implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs) are used to treat tachycardias, including fibrillation. To deliver an effective cardioversion/defibrillation therapy, the cardioversion/defibrillation energy is to be delivered to the chambers of the heart where the tachycardia or fibrillation originates. A cardioversion/defibrillation pulse delivered to a wrong chamber may be ineffective in treating the tachycardia or fibrillation and may cause unnecessary discomfort to the patient and shorten the ICD's battery life. When the atrial rate of depolarizations (or contractions) is substantially different from the ventricular rate of depolarizations (or contractions), the atrial and ventricular rates provide for a basis for locating where the tachycardia originates. However, events such as premature contractions, undersensing, and oversensing affect measured atrial and ventricular rates but are unrelated to the origin of tachycardia. Therefore, there is a need for improving accuracy in locating the origin of tachycardia based on measured atrial and ventricular rates."
In addition to obtaining background information on this patent, NewsRx editors also obtained the inventors' summary information for this patent: "An ICD executes a rate accuracy enhancement algorithm to select measured atrial and ventricular intervals for classifying a detected tachycardia based on average atrial and ventricular rates calculated from the selected atrial and ventricular intervals. The detected tachycardia is classified as VT if the average ventricular rate is substantially higher than the average atrial rate.
"In one embodiment, an ICD includes a sensing circuit, an interval measurement circuit, a tachycardia detection circuit, and a detection enhancement circuit. The sensing circuit senses an atrial electrogram and a ventricular electrogram. The interval measurement circuit measures atrial intervals from the atrial electrogram and ventricular intervals from the ventricular electrogram. The tachycardia detection circuit detects a tachycardia based on at least one of the measured atrial intervals and the measured ventricular intervals. The detection enhancement circuit includes a rate accuracy enhancement module, a rate calculator, and a tachycardia classification module. The rate accuracy enhancement module executes a rate accuracy enhancement algorithm to select a plurality of atrial intervals from the measured atrial intervals and a plurality of ventricular intervals from the measured ventricular intervals. The rate calculator calculates at least one average atrial rate based on the selected plurality of atrial intervals and at least one average ventricular rate based on the selected plurality of ventricular intervals. The tachycardia classification module classifies the detected tachycardia as VT when the average ventricular rate is substantially higher than the average atrial rate.
"In one embodiment, a method for enhancing tachycardia detection is provided. An atrial electrogram and a ventricular electrogram are sensed. Atrial intervals are measured based on the sensed atrial electrograms, and ventricular intervals are measured based on the sensed ventricular electrograms. A tachycardia is being detected based on one or more of the measured ventricular intervals. A rate accuracy enhancement algorithm is executed to select at least a plurality of atrial intervals from the measured atrial intervals and a plurality of ventricular intervals from the measured ventricular intervals. At least one average atrial rate is calculated based on the selected plurality of atrial intervals and one average ventricular rate is calculated based on the selected plurality of ventricular intervals. The detected tachycardia is classified VT if the at least one average ventricular rate is higher than the at least one average atrial rate by a predetermined margin.
"This Summary is an overview of some of the teachings of the present application and not intended to be an exclusive or exhaustive treatment of the present subject matter. Further details about the present subject matter are found in the detailed description and appended claims. Other aspects of the invention will be apparent to persons skilled in the art upon reading and understanding the following detailed description and viewing the drawings that form a part thereof, each of which are not to be taken in a limiting sense. The scope of the present invention is defined by the appended claims and their equivalents."
For more information, see this patent: Elahi, Bijan; Bocek, Joseph M.; Kim, Jaeho. Method and Apparatus for Rate Accuracy Enhancement in Ventricular Tachycardia Detection. U.S. Patent Number 8644918, filed
Keywords for this news article include: Treatment, Algorithms, Cardiology, Heart Disease, Cardiovascular, Cardiac Arrhythmias,
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